CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · SynOpen 2021; 05(01): 17-24
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1706015
letter

Synthesis of Functionalized 9-Substituted Fluorene Derivatives via Boron Trifluoride Catalysed Reaction of Coplanar 9-(Phenylethynyl)-9H-fluoren-9-ols, Aryl Aminoamides and N-Bromosuccinimide

Mohanakumaran Athira
,
M.A. thanks CSIR-New Delhi for the award of a Senior Research Fellowship.
 


Abstract

A boron trifluoride catalysed reaction of coplanar 9-(phenyl­ethynyl)-9H-fluoren-9-ols with various 2-aminobenzamides affords a number of highly functionalized, conjugated (Z)-2-((2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino) benzamides in excellent yield. The reaction in the presence of N-bromosuccinimide affords (E)-5-bromo-2-((2-bromo-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)benz­amides in very good yields. The scope of the reaction is demonstrated by selecting N-aryl substituted 2-aminobenzamides and aminosulfonamides as reaction partners. The structures of representative compounds were established by single-crystal XRD analysis. Based on the structure of the products, a plausible mechanism via formation of allene carbocation intermediates is proposed.


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Fluorene-based compounds have been widely investigated because of their wide range of applications as organic materials,[1] semiconductors,[2] optoelectronics,[3] organic dyes,[4] photoconductors[5] as well as their applications in solar cells,[6] fuel cells,[7] and materials science[8] as indicated in Figure [1]. Their highly fluorescent nature has enabled fluorene derivatives to be used in bright and efficient displays.[9]

Zoom Image
Figure 1 Selected materials and bioactive molecules based on the 9-substituted fluorene core structure

The presence of two benzylic acidic hydrogens at the C-9 position of fluorene activates them towards alkylation under basic conditions. Compounds with a fluorene motif such as NPC 16570 and NPC 17923 have been used as anti-inflammatory agents and inhibitors of leukocytes in inflamed tissue,[10] and also exhibit anticancer activity as well as cardiac and bone marrow toxicity.[11] Propargylic alcohols and their derivatives are useful precursors in organic synthesis.[12] Propargylic alcohols react with metal salts, iodine, and Lewis acids,[13] and they undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions via allene carbocation or propargyl cation species. In these situations, the allene intermediate shows diverse reactivity as well as selectivity.[14] Aryl aminoamides have been used as starting materials for the preparation of heterocyclic compounds and aryl amino amide appended carbocycles.[15] We have utilised fluorenone for the synthesis of spirofluorene-based fluorescent molecules[16] and we have recently reported the reaction of fluorene-9-propargylic alcohols with isatin imines for the preparation of blue emissive compounds via highly stable propargylic cation intermediates.[17] The reactions of aryl substituted propargylic alcohols with several nucleophiles such as sulfonamides,[19] nitroso compounds,[20] acetamides,[21] tosylhydrazines,[12] and imines[22] have been investigated by various research groups, to provide highly functionalized products through allenyl cation intermediates.[23] It should be noted that the two aryl groups in the diaryl substituted phenyl propargylic alcohols are conformationally orthogonal and decisive in the formation, stability, and reactivity of either carbocation or allenyl intermediate.[24] On the other hand, when the aryl groups are coplanar or nonplanar, the formation, stability, and reactivity of the reactive intermediate can be modified and provide products via the most stable intermediate. To our knowledge, the reaction of coplanar 9-(phenylethynyl)-9H-fluoren-9-ols with amino amides has not been reported. Thus, we have explored the reaction of rigid and coplanar diaryl substituted fluorene propargylic alcohols with substituted benzamides and sulfonamides.

In contrast to previous reports that coplanar fluorene propargylic alcohols with isatin imine nucleophiles affords products via the propargylic cation, herein we report the reaction with nucleophiles having labile amine protons, the reactivity being found to be reversed to afford products via an allenyl cation. The preliminary results of the study are presented in this manuscript.

Initially, a reaction between 1 equivalent of fluorenone propargylic alcohol 1a [25] in dichloromethane and 1 equivalent of 2-aminobenzamide (2a) and 0.1 equivalents of BF3·Et2O at room temperature for 10 minutes afforded (Z)-2-((2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)benzamide (3a) in 65% yield (Scheme [1], Table [1], entry 1). The structure of 3a was established by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135 and HRMS analyses.

Zoom Image
Scheme 1 Synthesis of compound 3a

To improve the yield and to optimize the reaction conditions for the synthesis of compound 3a, a study was carried out, varying reaction parameters such as relative quantities and nature of the acid catalyst, solvent and reaction time. Thus, performing the reaction using 0.3 equivalent of BF3·Et2O led to the yield of the product 3a being improved to 92% and was ultimately found to be optimal (Table [1], entry 2). Reactions using 0.5 equivalent of catalyst slightly decreased the yield to 89% (entry 3). Catalysts such as p-TsOH, FeCl3, and AlCl3, led to either decreased yields or no reaction (entries 4–7). Hence, BF3·Et2O was found to be the most suitable catalyst. Other solvents such as acetonitrile, methanol, and toluene did not improve the yield (entries 8–10). Hence, dichloromethane was found to be the most suitable solvent. An experiment without a Lewis acid catalyst failed to provide any product (entry 11).

Table 1 Optimization of Synthesis of Compound 3a

Entry

Catalyst

Solvent

Catalyst (equiv)

Time (min)

Yield of 3a (%)a

1

BF3·OEt2

DCM

0.1

10

65

2

BF3·OEt2

DCM

0.3

5

92b

3

BF3·OEt2

DCM

0.5

5

89

4

p-TsOH

DCM

0.3

30

40

5

FeCl3

DCM

0.3

30

40

6

AlCl3

DCM

0.3

30

no reaction

7

InBr3

DCM

0.3

7

80

8

BF3·OEt2

MeCN

0.8

0.5

decomposition

9

BF3·OEt2

MeOH

0.8

30

10

10

BF3·OEt2

toluene

0.8

5

no reaction

11

DCM

300

no reaction

a Isolated yield after column purification.

b Optimized conditions.

Zoom Image
Figure 2 Various propargyl alcohols 1ac and aryl aminoamides 2ak

Having the optimized conditions in hand, the scope of the reaction was investigated by using a number of propargylic alcohols 1ad and aryl aminoamides 2ag (Figure [2]). Under the optimized conditions, all reactions proceeded well to afford the corresponding products 3am in excellent yields (Table [2], Figure [3]). To demonstrate the diversity of the amino derivatives in the reaction, 2-aminobenzenesulfonamide 2b was reacted with propargyl alcohol 1a to provide the sulfonamide derivative 3b in 90% yield (entry 2). Reaction of propargylic alcohol 1a with 5-iodobenzamide 2c yielded product 3c in 91% yield (entry 3). In a further exploration of various benzamides, substituted aminoamides 2df were chosen to react with 1a to afford products 3df in good yields (entries 4–6). Substituted aminoamides 2df were prepared from isatoic anhydride and aryl amines in water at room temperature.[26] The structure and relative stereochemistry of the representative compound 3e was confirmed by single-crystal XRD analysis (Figure [4]).[27]

Zoom Image
Figure 3 Synthesized compounds 3am
Zoom Image
Figure 4 ORTEP diagram of compound 3e (CCDC-1967615)[27]

To study the reactivity of fluorene propargylic alcohols bearing electron-donating groups, substrate 1b was reacted with substituted amino amides 2df to provide compounds 3gi in moderate to good yields (Table [2], entries 7–9). Alcohol 1b, on reaction with dimethyl substituted amino amide 2g, afforded product 3j in low yield (entry 10). Furthermore, reaction of alcohol 1c with amino amides 2de proceeded smoothly to afford the respective products 3k and 3l (entries 11 and 12). To study the effect of substitution on the fluorenone ring, propargylic alcohol 1d was reacted with 2e, furnishing product 3m in 72% yield (entry 13).

Table 2 Reaction Scopea

Entry

Substrate

Aminoamide

Product (Yield, %)b

1

1a

2a

3a (92)

2

1a

2b

3b (90)

3

1a

2c

3c (91)

4

1a

2d

3d (89)

5

1a

2e

3e (90)

6

1a

2f

3f (88)

7

1b

2d

3g (87)

8

1b

2e

3h (91)

9

1b

2f

3i (88)

10

1b

2g

3j (75)

11

1c

2d

3k (84)

12

1c

2e

3l (83)

13

1d

2e

3m (69)

14

1a

2h

decomposition

15

1a

2i

decomposition

16

1a

2j

decomposition

17

1a

2k

decomposition

a Reaction conditions: BF3·Et2O (0.3 equiv), CH2Cl2, 5 min. r.t.

b Isolated yield after column purification.

It is worth noting that the reaction of alcohol 1a with meta-substituted aminobenzamide 2h and para-substituted aminobenzamide 2i failed to provide the expected product. Thus, the reaction occurs only with ortho-amino arylamides, possibly due to hydrogen bonding. On the other hand, we also wished to test the reaction with arylamines such as aniline 2j and aliphatic amines such as isopropylamine 2k with alcohol 1a. However, both reactions failed to provide the desired product and decomposed.

Based on the structure of the products formed and on literature reports,[17] a plausible mechanism for the formation of product 3 is proposed in Scheme [2]. Accordingly, initial reaction of the fluorene derived propargylic alcohol 1 with BF3 [12e] [18] generates the propargyl cation/allenic carbocation intermediate A. Subsequent nucleophilic attack of the lone pair of electrons of the amine group of arylaminoamide 2 onto the allenic carbocation A provides allene substituted product B. Subsequent skeletal rearrangement of B leads to product 3.

Zoom Image
Scheme 2 Plausible mechanism for the formation of compound 3

To explore the scope of the reaction further and to diversify the products with halogen derivatives, the reaction shown in Scheme [3] in the presence of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) was proposed. Thus, the reaction was carried out with 1 equiv of fluorenone derived propargylic alcohol 1a in dichloromethane, 1 equiv of 2-aminobenzamide 2a, 1 equiv of NBS, and 0.3 equiv amount of BF3·Et2O at room temperature for 5 minutes to afford the dibromination product, namely, (E)-5-bromo-2-((2-bromo-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)benzamide (4a) in good yield (60%; Scheme [3]). The structure and relative stereochemistry of compound 4a was confirmed by single-crystal XRD analysis (Figure [5]).[27]

Zoom Image
Scheme 3 Synthesis of compound 4a
Zoom Image
Figure 5 ORTEP diagram of compound 4a (CCDC-1957144)[27]

Under the optimized conditions, the scope of the reaction in the presence of NBS was demonstrated by using various propargylic alcohols 1a and 1b and aryl benzamides 2a, sulfonamide 2b and iodo-substituted aryl benzamide 2c to produce products 4ad in 60–75% yields (Figure [6]). The structure of all the new compounds was established by spectroscopic analyses.[28]

Zoom Image
Figure 6 Synthesized compounds 4ad

Based on the products and on literature precedents,[17] , [19] [20] [21] [22] a possible mechanism for the formation of compound 4 is shown in Scheme [4]. The allenic carbocation intermediate A with aminobenzamide 2 forms allene intermediate B. Meanwhile, in the presence of BF3·OEt2, NBS is activated and eliminates a bromine cation. Due to the electron-donating nature of nitrogen, the electron-rich internal carbon atom of allene intermediate B reacts with the bromine cation to form intermediate C. Elimination of a proton from intermediate C followed by aromatic electrophilic bromination forms the observed compound 4.

Zoom Image
Scheme 4 Plausible mechanism for the formation of compound 4

In conclusion, we have developed a procedure for the synthesis of (Z)-2-((2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenyl-ethylidene)amino)benzamides via BF3-mediated reaction of coplanar 9-(phenylethynyl)-9H-fluoren-9-ols with various 2-aminobenzamides.[28] Reaction in the presence of NBS afforded­ (E)-5-bromo-2-((2-bromo-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-ethenylethylidene)amino)benzamides. A plausible mechanism for the formation of products via an allene carbocation intermediate is proposed. The structure of representative compounds has been established by single-crystal XRD analysis.


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Acknowledgment

P.S. thanks the Director, CSIR-CLRI for providing infrastructure facilities. The authors thank SAIF-IITM for single-crystal XRD analysis and CSIR-IICB, Kolkata for HRMS data. This research work was carried out as a part of a Ph.D. degree registered at the University of Madras.

Supporting Information

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  • 28 Synthesis of Compounds 3a–m; General Procedure: To a stirred solution of propargylic alcohol derivative of fluorenone 1 (0.35 mmol, 1equiv) and aminobenzamide 2 (0.35 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (5 mL) was added BF3·OEt2 (0.1 mmol, 0.3 equiv). The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 minutes. After the completion of the reaction (monitored by TLC), the reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane, washed with distilled water and saturated brine. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The crude mixture was purified by silica gel column chromatography (eluent: hexane/EtOAc) to afford the corresponding compounds 3am in good yields. Synthesis of Compounds 4a–d; General Procedure: To a solution of propargylic alcohol 1 (0.35 mmol, 1 equiv) and aminobenzamide 2 (0.35 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (5 mL) was added NBS (0.4 mmol, 1.2 equiv) followed by BF3·Et2O (0.1 mmol, 0.3 equiv) and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature. After the completion of the reaction (monitored by TLC), the reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane, washed with distilled water and saturated brine. The combined organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The crude mixture was purified by silica gel column chromatography (eluent: hexane/EtOAc) to afford the corresponding compounds 4ad in good yields. (Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)benzamide (3a): Yield: 92%; yellow solid; Rf (30% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.45. FTIR (KBr): 3293, 3057, 2922, 2852, 1914, 1810, 1656, 1611, 1487, 1447, 1378, 1289, 1267, 1236, 1158, 1107, 1016, 943, 836, 747, 730, 697, 622 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.25 (s, 1 H), 8.13 (dd, J = 7.5, 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.98–7.95 (m, 2 H), 7.58–7.53 (m, 2 H), 7.47 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.43 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.35 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.29 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 1 H), 7.21–7.15 (m, 2 H), 7.10 (ddd, J = 7.5, 4.8, 1.7 Hz, 3 H), 6.92 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 1 H), 6.85 (s, 1 H), 6.73 (dd, J = 7.6, 1.3 Hz, 1 H), 6.07 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 119.1, 119.9, 120, 120.9, 121.1, 124.7, 125.7, 127.4, 127.5, 128.7, 129.2, 129.6, 129.7, 131.4, 132, 135.5, 137.3, 137.7, 139.9, 141.7, 142.7, 148.6, 166.9, 168.6. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C28H21N2O: 401.1653; found: 401.1652.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)benzenesulfonamide (3b): Yield: 90%; yellow solid; Rf (30% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.47. FTIR (KBr): 3360, 3268, 2923, 1918, 1643, 1604, 1587, 1535, 1445, 1401, 1344, 1276, 1254, 1209, 1171, 1128, 1070, 1024, 942, 857, 833, 807, 772, 730, 689, 620 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.06–8.03 (m, 2 H), 8.00 (dd, J = 7.9, 1.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.66 (dd, J = 7.5, 0.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.57 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.53–7.48 (m, 1 H), 7.44–7.37 (m, 3 H), 7.32 (ddd, J = 10.2, 8.2, 1.3 Hz, 2 H), 7.27 (dd, J = 2.6, 1.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.25–7.22 (m, 2 H), 7.18–7.14 (m, 1 H), 7.03 (td, J = 7.6, 1.1 Hz, 1 H), 6.97 (s, 1 H), 6.77 (dd, J = 7.9, 1.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.34 (s, 2 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 119.7, 119.9, 120.1, 120.9, 121.5, 124.6, 125.9, 127, 127.4, 127.6, 128.8, 129.2, 129.6, 129.7, 132.3, 132.8, 133.6, 135.8, 137, 137.7, 139.9, 141.9, 142.4, 148.2, 169.5. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C27H21N2O2S: 437.1323; found: 437.1323.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)-5-iodobenzamide (3c): Yield: 91%; yellow solid; Rf (30% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.50. FTIR (KBr): 3413, 3339, 3149, 2971, 2924, 1670, 1608, 1575, 1495, 1447, 1404, 1350, 1294, 1256, 1211, 1159, 1095, 1018, 951, 918, 862, 813, 780, 733, 698, 663 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.46 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1 H), 8.19 (s, 1 H), 7.99–7.94 (m, 2 H), 7.57 (dd, J = 11.0, 7.6 Hz, 2 H), 7.51 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.48–7.39 (m, 2 H), 7.34 (ddd, J = 10.7, 8.3, 4.3 Hz, 3 H), 7.22 (ddd, J = 7.6, 4.3, 0.9 Hz, 2 H), 7.06 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.91 (td, J = 7.7, 0.9 Hz, 1 H), 6.82 (s, 1 H), 6.48 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1 H), 5.74 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 89.9, 118.5, 120.0, 120.4, 121.2, 122.8, 125.8, 126.7, 127.5, 127.7, 128.8, 129.3, 129.9, 129.4, 132.4, 135.4, 137.2, 137.6, 140.1, 140.2, 140.7, 141.9, 143.2, 148.1, 166.9, 167.5. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C28H20IN2O: 527.0620; found: 527.0619.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)-N-phenylbenzamide (3d): Yield: 89%; yellow crystals; Rf (10% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3418, 3114, 3058, 1915, 1710, 1662, 1595, 1537, 1494, 1445, 1401, 1315, 1279, 1249, 1157, 1124, 882, 752, 730, 694, 620 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.75 (s, 1 H), 8.25–8.20 (m, 1 H), 8.05–8.01 (m, 2 H), 7.52 (dd, J = 12.3, 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.47–7.36 (m, 6 H), 7.26 (dd, J = 7.5, 0.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.17 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.15–7.11 (m, 5 H), 7.08–7.06 (m, 1 H), 6.96–6.92 (m, 1 H), 6.90 (s, 1 H), 6.81–6.76 (m, 2 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 118.8, 120.0, 120.1, 121.0, 121.2, 123.9, 125.9, 126.1, 126.3, 127.4, 127.6, 128.9, 129.0, 129.2, 129.8, 131.6, 131.8, 132.4, 135.4, 137.4, 137.7, 138.7, 140.1, 141.8, 143.1, 147.7, 164.3, 167.3. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C34H25N2O: 477.1966; found: 477.1970.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)-N-(3-bromophenyl)benzamide (3e): Yield: 90%; yellow crystals; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.45. FTIR (KBr): 3649, 3051, 3012, 2971, 2922, 2363, 1942, 1913, 1665, 1589, 1523, 1476, 1446, 1417, 1285, 1249, 1159, 1126, 1064, 994, 956, 913, 877, 768, 726, 697, 674, 621 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.98 (s, 1 H), 8.24–8.21 (m, 1 H), 8.05–8.02 (m, 2 H), 7.57 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.54 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.53–7.47 (m, 3 H), 7.42 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 3 H), 7.32–7.28 (m, 1 H), 7.20–7.16 (m, 3 H), 7.15 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.06 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.00 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.90 (s, 1 H), 6.84–6.79 (m, 2 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 118.3, 118.6, 120.0, 120.1, 121.1, 121.2, 122.6, 122.8, 125.8, 125.9, 126.5, 126.7, 127.4, 127.6, 128.8, 129.4, 129.8, 129.9, 130.3, 131.6, 132.1, 132.6, 135.4, 137.4, 137.7, 140.0, 140.1, 141.8, 143.5, 147.6, 164.3, 167.4. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C34H24BrN2O: 557.1072; found: 557.1060.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)-N-(p-toluenesulfonyl)benzamide (3f): Yield: 88%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3009, 2919, 1911, 1652, 1593, 1564, 1527, 1446, 1404, 1345, 1314, 1280, 1248, 1177, 1124, 1090, 1019, 881, 849, 812, 767, 729, 696, 621 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.70 (s, 1 H), 8.23 (dd, J = 6.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.06–8.03 (m, 2 H), 7.57–7.52 (m, 2 H), 7.48 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 2 H), 7.39 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.31 (dd, J = 14.2, 7.8 Hz, 3 H), 7.20–7.14 (m, 4 H), 7.09 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 6.97 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2 H), 6.91 (s, 1 H), 6.81 (ddd, J = 11.9, 6.6, 2.4 Hz, 2 H), 2.20 (s, 3 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 20.9, 118.9, 119.9, 120.0, 120.1, 120.9, 121.2, 125.9, 126.1, 126.3, 127.4, 127.6, 128.9, 129.2, 129.5, 129.7, 129.8, 131.5, 131.8, 132.4, 133.4, 135.5, 136.1, 137.4, 137.8, 140.1, 141.8, 143.1, 147.7, 164.1, 167.1. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C35H27N2O: 491.2123; found: 491.2122.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)ethylidene)amino)-N-phenylbenzamide (3g): Yield: 87%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3566, 3057, 2921, 2852, 2364, 1718, 1666, 1597, 1561, 1538, 1495, 1446, 1315, 1280, 1247, 1178, 1121, 1036, 824, 776, 753, 730, 692, 621 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.82 (s, 1 H), 8.22 (dd, J = 6.0, 3.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.94 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.54 (dd, J = 11.8, 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.48 (dd, J = 7.4, 2.4 Hz, 3 H), 7.31–7.27 (m, 1 H), 7.20–7.15 (m, 6 H), 7.14–7.10 (m, 3 H), 6.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 1 H), 6.90 (s, 1 H), 6.84–6.76 (m, 2 H), 2.35 (s, 3 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 21.8, 119.2, 119.9, 120.0, 120.1, 121.1, 123.9, 125.9, 126.0, 126.1, 127.5, 127.6, 128.9, 129.0, 129.7, 129.8, 130.0, 131.5, 131.9, 134.6, 135.5, 137.7, 138.7, 140.0, 141.7, 142.9, 143.1, 147.8, 164.4, 167.1. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C35H27N2O: 491.2123; found: 491.2123.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)ethylidene)amino)-N-(3-bromophenyl)benzamide (3h): Yield: 91%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3772, 3050, 3009, 2922, 2852, 1938, 1661, 1589, 1553, 1418, 1351, 1313, 1300, 1286, 1251, 1224, 1180, 1158, 1043, 773, 724, 695, 625 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 11.04 (s, 1 H), 8.23–8.20 (m, 1 H), 7.93 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.57–7.52 (m, 3 H), 7.49–7.47 (m, 2 H), 7.29 (td, J = 7.5, 0.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.24–7.19 (m, 3 H), 7.17 (s, 1 H), 7.16–7.13 (m, 2 H), 7.10 (s, 1 H), 7.07 (dd, J = 6.5, 1.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.01 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 6.89 (s, 1 H), 6.85–6.80 (m, 2 H), 2.35 (s, 3 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 21.8, 118.4, 118.8, 120.0, 120.1, 121.1, 121.2, 122.6, 122.8, 125.8, 126.0, 126.3, 126.7, 127.4, 127.6, 128.8, 129.8, 129.9, 130.2, 130.4, 131.4, 131.5, 132.1, 134.8, 135.5, 137.8, 140.1, 141.8, 143.2, 143.4, 143.7, 164.4, 167.2. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C35H26BrN2O: 571.1206; found: 571.1213.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)ethylidene)amino)-N-(p-toluenesulfonyl)benzamide (3i): Yield: 88%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3465, 3361, 3271, 3171, 3040, 2917, 2854, 2363, 1920, 1715, 1658, 1539, 1512, 1473, 1446, 1405, 1319, 1281, 1246, 1176, 1128, 1089, 1039, 1014, 983, 938, 895, 851, 815, 777, 728, 693, 664, 621 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.75 (s, 1 H), 8.22 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.93 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.54 (dd, J = 11.7, 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.47 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.36 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2 H), 7.28 (dd, J = 10.9, 4.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.18 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2 H), 7.11 (dd, J = 6.1, 3.3 Hz, 3 H), 6.98 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.90 (s, 1 H), 6.84–6.79 (m, 1 H), 6.77 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.34 (s, 3 H), 2.20 (s, 3 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 21.0, 21.8, 119.3, 119.9, 120.0, 121.0, 121.1, 125.9, 126.0, 127.4, 127.5, 128.9, 129.5, 129.7, 130.0, 131.4, 131.7, 133.4, 135.5, 136.2, 137.7, 140.0, 141.7, 142.8, 143.0, 147.8, 164.2, 170.0. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C36H29N2O: 505.2279; found: 505.2273.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)ethylidene)amino)-N-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)benzamide (3j): Yield: 75%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3163, 3057, 2961, 3919, 2850, 2359, 1910, 1717, 1658, 1594, 1558, 1537, 1502, 1469, 1446, 1405, 1313, 1280, 1252, 1176, 1130, 1092, 1043, 937, 880, 862, 826, 777, 728, 695, 662, 620 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.84 (s, 1 H), 8.32 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 8.03 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.64 (dd, J = 11.5, 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.57 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.42–7.36 (m, 2 H), 7.30–7.26 (m, 4 H), 7.22 (dd, J = 6.7, 3.1 Hz, 3 H), 7.18 (s, 1 H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 6.98 (s, 1 H), 6.93 (td, J = 7.7, 0.9 Hz, 1 H), 6.86 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.44 (s, 3 H), 2.20 (s, 3 H), 2.15 (s, 3 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 19.3, 19.8, 21.7, 117.4, 119.1, 119.9, 120.0, 120.9, 121.2, 121.3, 125.9, 126.0, 126.1, 127.5, 127.6, 128.9, 129.7, 129.9, 130.0, 131.4, 131.7, 132.1, 134.8, 135.6, 136.5, 1370, 137.8, 140.0, 141.7, 142.9, 142.9, 147.7, 134.1, 166.9. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C37H31N2O: 519.2436; found: 519.2438. (Z)-2-((1-(4-Bromophenyl)-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)ethylidene) amino)-N-phenylbenzamide (3k): Yield: 84%; yellow solid; Rf (10% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.47. FTIR (KBr): 3645, 3052, 3010, 2970, 2932, 2363, 1942, 1913, 1665, 1589, 1523, 1476, 1446, 1417, 1285, 1249, 1159, 1126, 1064, 994, 956, 877, 768, 726, 674, 623 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.55 (s, 1 H), 8.25–8.21 (m, 1 H), 7.93–7.91 (m, 2 H), 7.58–7.53 (m, 4 H), 7.49–7.42 (m, 3 H), 7.33–7.29 (m, 1 H), 7.21 (dd, J = 10.8, 4.3 Hz, 4 H), 7.18 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.17 (dd, J = 2.5, 1.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.05 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.99 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.88–6.85 (m, 2 H), 6.80–6.78 (m, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 118.2, 120.0, 120.1, 120.2, 120.9, 121.2, 124.1, 125.8, 126.5, 127.3, 127.6, 127.7, 129.2, 130.0, 130.1, 130.2, 131.6, 132.0, 132.6, 135.3, 136.3, 137.6, 138.6, 140.1, 141.9, 143.6, 147.5, 164.2, 166.4. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C34H24BrN2O: 557.1052; found: 557.1053.(Z)-N-(3-Bromophenyl)-2-((1-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)ethylidene)amino)benzamide (3l): Yield: 83%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.48. FTIR (KBr): 3060, 2923, 2850, 1668, 1589, 1531, 1478, 1445, 1417, 1304, 1284, 1247, 1171, 1121, 1072, 1007, 859, 835, 774, 727, 680, 621 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.78 (s, 1 H), 8.24–8.21 (m, 1 H), 7.92–7.89 (m, 2 H), 7.56 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 4 H), 7.52 (dd, J = 6.9, 5.0 Hz, 2 H), 7.47 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.44–7.41 (m, 1 H), 7.30 (dt, J = 7.5, 3.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.23–7.20 (m, 1 H), 7.18 (s, 2 H), 7.09 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.06–7.03 (m, 2 H), 6.87 (dd, J = 7.6, 1.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.85 (s, 1 H), 6.82–6.80 (m, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 117.9, 118.2, 120.1, 120.3, 121.0, 121.3, 122.7, 122.8, 125.8, 125.9, 126.7, 126.9, 127.5, 127.9, 127.7, 130.1, 130.2, 130.3, 130.5, 131.6, 132.2, 132.7, 135.2, 136.4, 137.6, 139.8, 140.1, 141.9, 143.9, 147.4, 164.2, 166.5. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 4] calcd for C34H23Br2N2O: 637.0177; found: 637.1037.(Z)-N-(3-Bromophenyl)-2-((2-(2,7-dibromo-9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)benzamide (3m): Yield: 69%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3056, 2919, 2849, 1734, 1671, 1589, 1533, 1476, 1447, 1422, 1307, 1251, 1063, 1003, 952, 879, 810, 773, 696 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.97 (s, 1 H), 8.30–8.26 (m, 1 H), 8.00–7.97 (m, 2 H), 7.62 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.58–7.54 (m, 2 H), 7.49 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.43 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.41–7.35 (m, 3 H), 7.31 (dd, J = 8.1, 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.24–7.21 (m, 2 H), 7.14 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.06 (dd, J = 6.8, 1.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.01 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.98 (s, 1 H), 6.83–6.79 (m, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 118.4, 121.1, 121.2, 121.3, 121.4, 121.5, 121.9, 122.6, 122.9, 124.6, 126.1, 126.8, 127.0, 128.7, 129.2, 129.6, 130.2, 131.9, 132.1, 133.0, 136.7, 137.2, 137.9, 139.3, 139.7, 140.0, 141.3, 147.0, 164.0, 166.1. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 6] calcd for C34H21Br3N2O: 716.9222; found: 716.9244.(E)-5-Bromo-2-((2-bromo-2(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenyl ethylidene)amino)benzamide (4a): Yield: 60%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.43. FTIR (KBr): 3400, 3059, 1664, 1604, 1576, 1462, 1447, 1408, 1344, 1315, 1263, 1204, 1181, 1096, 1056, 1024, 936, 851, 811, 779, 730, 691, 649, 620 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.52 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 8.23 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.98 (dd, J = 5.3, 3.3 Hz, 2 H), 7.87 (s, 1 H), 7.61 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.56 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.50–7.46 (m, 1 H), 7.39 (ddd, J = 9.6, 7.0, 4.0 Hz, 3 H), 7.31 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.25 (ddd, J = 7.3, 6.8, 3.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.17 (dd, J = 6.4, 2.1 Hz, 1 H), 6.98 (td, J = 7.8, 1.1 Hz, 1 H), 6.62 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.05 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 113.1, 119.3, 119.9, 120.0, 120.6, 124.4, 126.4, 126.6, 127.6, 127.9, 128.6, 129.5, 129.6, 130.4, 132.7, 134.1, 134.2, 134.9, 136.2, 136.3, 139.9, 140.3, 141.5, 146.2, 165.6, 166.6. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 4] calcd for C28H19Br2N2O: 560.9864; found: 560.9847.(E)-2-((2-Bromo-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-(p-toluenesulfonyl) ethylidene)amino)benzamide (4b): Yield: 75%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.45. FTIR (KBr): 3608, 3440, 3341, 3159, 3059, 2919, 2852, 1670, 1563, 1492, 1471, 1445, 1374, 1290, 1267, 1204, 1181, 1113, 1059, 1019, 977, 926, 834, 777, 727, 660, 624 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.51 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 8.11–8.07 (m, 1 H), 7.96 (s, 1 H), 7.88 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2 H), 7.61–7.53 (m, 2 H), 7.39–7.33 (m, 2 H), 7.26–7.18 (m, 4 H), 7.06 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.01–6.97 (m, 1 H), 6.74–6.71 (m, 1 H), 5.95 (s, 1 H), 2.33 (s, 3 H); 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 21.7, 114.2, 119.0, 119.9, 120.0, 124.7, 125.7, 126.4, 127.6, 128.0, 128.7, 129.5, 130.2, 130.3, 131.4, 131.8, 132.2, 136.5, 136.6, 139.6, 140.3, 141.5, 143.4, 147.5, 164.9, 168.3. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C29H22BrN2O: 495.0995; found: 495.1180.(E)-2-((2-Bromo-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenyl­ethylidene)amino)benzenesulfonamide (4c): Yield: 73%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.44. FTIR (KBr): 3358, 3260, 2920, 1915, 1641, 1611, 1530, 1444, 1344, 1276, 1254, 1209, 1171, 1128, 1070, 1024, 942, 857, 832, 807, 772, 689, 620 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.58 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.98–7.93 (m, 3 H), 7.66 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.61 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.45–7.39 (m, 3 H), 7.38–7.35 (m, 2 H), 7.29–7.24 (m, 2 H), 7.16–7.11 (m, 2 H), 7.00 (td, J = 7.9, 1.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.90–6.87 (m, 1 H), 5.39 (s, 2 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 21.0, 21.8, 119.3, 120.0, 121.0, 121.1, 125.9, 126.0, 127.4, 127.5, 128.9, 129.5, 129.7, 129.8, 131.4, 131.7, 133.4, 134.6, 135.5, 136.2, 137.7, 140.0, 141.7, 142.8, 143.0, 147.8, 164.2, 166.9. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C27H20BrN2O2S: 517.0408; found: 517.0420.(E)-2-((2-Bromo-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenyl­ethylidene)amino)-5-iodobenzamide (4d): Yield: 72%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.43. FTIR (KBr): 3370, 3327, 3145, 3063, 2921, 2774, 2252, 1959, 1903, 1811, 1669, 1596, 1565, 1445, 1404, 1347, 1314, 1260, 1202, 1152, 1087, 1052, 1022, 935, 904, 872, 845, 801, 774, 727, 688, 645, 622 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.52 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 8.40 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1 H), 7.99–7.96 (m, 2 H), 7.84 (d, J = 2.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.60 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.56–7.54 (m, 1 H), 7.47–7.44 (m, 1 H), 7.41–7.33 (m, 5 H), 7.30 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.27–7.19 (m, 2 H), 6.97 (td, J = 7.8, 1.1 Hz, 1 H), 6.49–6.46 (m, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 90.1, 113.2, 120.0, 120.1, 120.9, 124.5, 126.5, 126.6, 127.7, 128.0, 128.8, 129.6, 129.7, 130.5, 132.9, 134.2, 136.3, 136.4, 139.9, 140.1, 140.4, 140.9, 141.6, 146.9, 165.6, 166.8. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C28H19BrIN2O: 606.9705; found: 606.9719.

Corresponding Author

Ponnusamy Shanmugam
Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI)
Adyar, Chennai-600020
India   

Publication History

Received: 16 May 2020

Accepted after revision: 03 January 2021

Publication Date:
25 January 2021 (online)

© 2021. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

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  • 28 Synthesis of Compounds 3a–m; General Procedure: To a stirred solution of propargylic alcohol derivative of fluorenone 1 (0.35 mmol, 1equiv) and aminobenzamide 2 (0.35 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (5 mL) was added BF3·OEt2 (0.1 mmol, 0.3 equiv). The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 minutes. After the completion of the reaction (monitored by TLC), the reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane, washed with distilled water and saturated brine. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The crude mixture was purified by silica gel column chromatography (eluent: hexane/EtOAc) to afford the corresponding compounds 3am in good yields. Synthesis of Compounds 4a–d; General Procedure: To a solution of propargylic alcohol 1 (0.35 mmol, 1 equiv) and aminobenzamide 2 (0.35 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (5 mL) was added NBS (0.4 mmol, 1.2 equiv) followed by BF3·Et2O (0.1 mmol, 0.3 equiv) and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature. After the completion of the reaction (monitored by TLC), the reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane, washed with distilled water and saturated brine. The combined organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The crude mixture was purified by silica gel column chromatography (eluent: hexane/EtOAc) to afford the corresponding compounds 4ad in good yields. (Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)benzamide (3a): Yield: 92%; yellow solid; Rf (30% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.45. FTIR (KBr): 3293, 3057, 2922, 2852, 1914, 1810, 1656, 1611, 1487, 1447, 1378, 1289, 1267, 1236, 1158, 1107, 1016, 943, 836, 747, 730, 697, 622 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.25 (s, 1 H), 8.13 (dd, J = 7.5, 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.98–7.95 (m, 2 H), 7.58–7.53 (m, 2 H), 7.47 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.43 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.35 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.29 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 1 H), 7.21–7.15 (m, 2 H), 7.10 (ddd, J = 7.5, 4.8, 1.7 Hz, 3 H), 6.92 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 1 H), 6.85 (s, 1 H), 6.73 (dd, J = 7.6, 1.3 Hz, 1 H), 6.07 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 119.1, 119.9, 120, 120.9, 121.1, 124.7, 125.7, 127.4, 127.5, 128.7, 129.2, 129.6, 129.7, 131.4, 132, 135.5, 137.3, 137.7, 139.9, 141.7, 142.7, 148.6, 166.9, 168.6. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C28H21N2O: 401.1653; found: 401.1652.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)benzenesulfonamide (3b): Yield: 90%; yellow solid; Rf (30% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.47. FTIR (KBr): 3360, 3268, 2923, 1918, 1643, 1604, 1587, 1535, 1445, 1401, 1344, 1276, 1254, 1209, 1171, 1128, 1070, 1024, 942, 857, 833, 807, 772, 730, 689, 620 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.06–8.03 (m, 2 H), 8.00 (dd, J = 7.9, 1.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.66 (dd, J = 7.5, 0.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.57 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.53–7.48 (m, 1 H), 7.44–7.37 (m, 3 H), 7.32 (ddd, J = 10.2, 8.2, 1.3 Hz, 2 H), 7.27 (dd, J = 2.6, 1.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.25–7.22 (m, 2 H), 7.18–7.14 (m, 1 H), 7.03 (td, J = 7.6, 1.1 Hz, 1 H), 6.97 (s, 1 H), 6.77 (dd, J = 7.9, 1.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.34 (s, 2 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 119.7, 119.9, 120.1, 120.9, 121.5, 124.6, 125.9, 127, 127.4, 127.6, 128.8, 129.2, 129.6, 129.7, 132.3, 132.8, 133.6, 135.8, 137, 137.7, 139.9, 141.9, 142.4, 148.2, 169.5. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C27H21N2O2S: 437.1323; found: 437.1323.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)-5-iodobenzamide (3c): Yield: 91%; yellow solid; Rf (30% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.50. FTIR (KBr): 3413, 3339, 3149, 2971, 2924, 1670, 1608, 1575, 1495, 1447, 1404, 1350, 1294, 1256, 1211, 1159, 1095, 1018, 951, 918, 862, 813, 780, 733, 698, 663 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.46 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1 H), 8.19 (s, 1 H), 7.99–7.94 (m, 2 H), 7.57 (dd, J = 11.0, 7.6 Hz, 2 H), 7.51 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.48–7.39 (m, 2 H), 7.34 (ddd, J = 10.7, 8.3, 4.3 Hz, 3 H), 7.22 (ddd, J = 7.6, 4.3, 0.9 Hz, 2 H), 7.06 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.91 (td, J = 7.7, 0.9 Hz, 1 H), 6.82 (s, 1 H), 6.48 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1 H), 5.74 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 89.9, 118.5, 120.0, 120.4, 121.2, 122.8, 125.8, 126.7, 127.5, 127.7, 128.8, 129.3, 129.9, 129.4, 132.4, 135.4, 137.2, 137.6, 140.1, 140.2, 140.7, 141.9, 143.2, 148.1, 166.9, 167.5. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C28H20IN2O: 527.0620; found: 527.0619.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)-N-phenylbenzamide (3d): Yield: 89%; yellow crystals; Rf (10% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3418, 3114, 3058, 1915, 1710, 1662, 1595, 1537, 1494, 1445, 1401, 1315, 1279, 1249, 1157, 1124, 882, 752, 730, 694, 620 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.75 (s, 1 H), 8.25–8.20 (m, 1 H), 8.05–8.01 (m, 2 H), 7.52 (dd, J = 12.3, 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.47–7.36 (m, 6 H), 7.26 (dd, J = 7.5, 0.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.17 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.15–7.11 (m, 5 H), 7.08–7.06 (m, 1 H), 6.96–6.92 (m, 1 H), 6.90 (s, 1 H), 6.81–6.76 (m, 2 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 118.8, 120.0, 120.1, 121.0, 121.2, 123.9, 125.9, 126.1, 126.3, 127.4, 127.6, 128.9, 129.0, 129.2, 129.8, 131.6, 131.8, 132.4, 135.4, 137.4, 137.7, 138.7, 140.1, 141.8, 143.1, 147.7, 164.3, 167.3. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C34H25N2O: 477.1966; found: 477.1970.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)-N-(3-bromophenyl)benzamide (3e): Yield: 90%; yellow crystals; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.45. FTIR (KBr): 3649, 3051, 3012, 2971, 2922, 2363, 1942, 1913, 1665, 1589, 1523, 1476, 1446, 1417, 1285, 1249, 1159, 1126, 1064, 994, 956, 913, 877, 768, 726, 697, 674, 621 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.98 (s, 1 H), 8.24–8.21 (m, 1 H), 8.05–8.02 (m, 2 H), 7.57 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.54 (d, J = 4.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.53–7.47 (m, 3 H), 7.42 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 3 H), 7.32–7.28 (m, 1 H), 7.20–7.16 (m, 3 H), 7.15 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.06 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.00 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.90 (s, 1 H), 6.84–6.79 (m, 2 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 118.3, 118.6, 120.0, 120.1, 121.1, 121.2, 122.6, 122.8, 125.8, 125.9, 126.5, 126.7, 127.4, 127.6, 128.8, 129.4, 129.8, 129.9, 130.3, 131.6, 132.1, 132.6, 135.4, 137.4, 137.7, 140.0, 140.1, 141.8, 143.5, 147.6, 164.3, 167.4. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C34H24BrN2O: 557.1072; found: 557.1060.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)-N-(p-toluenesulfonyl)benzamide (3f): Yield: 88%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3009, 2919, 1911, 1652, 1593, 1564, 1527, 1446, 1404, 1345, 1314, 1280, 1248, 1177, 1124, 1090, 1019, 881, 849, 812, 767, 729, 696, 621 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.70 (s, 1 H), 8.23 (dd, J = 6.0, 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.06–8.03 (m, 2 H), 7.57–7.52 (m, 2 H), 7.48 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 2 H), 7.39 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.31 (dd, J = 14.2, 7.8 Hz, 3 H), 7.20–7.14 (m, 4 H), 7.09 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 6.97 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2 H), 6.91 (s, 1 H), 6.81 (ddd, J = 11.9, 6.6, 2.4 Hz, 2 H), 2.20 (s, 3 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 20.9, 118.9, 119.9, 120.0, 120.1, 120.9, 121.2, 125.9, 126.1, 126.3, 127.4, 127.6, 128.9, 129.2, 129.5, 129.7, 129.8, 131.5, 131.8, 132.4, 133.4, 135.5, 136.1, 137.4, 137.8, 140.1, 141.8, 143.1, 147.7, 164.1, 167.1. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C35H27N2O: 491.2123; found: 491.2122.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)ethylidene)amino)-N-phenylbenzamide (3g): Yield: 87%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3566, 3057, 2921, 2852, 2364, 1718, 1666, 1597, 1561, 1538, 1495, 1446, 1315, 1280, 1247, 1178, 1121, 1036, 824, 776, 753, 730, 692, 621 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.82 (s, 1 H), 8.22 (dd, J = 6.0, 3.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.94 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.54 (dd, J = 11.8, 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.48 (dd, J = 7.4, 2.4 Hz, 3 H), 7.31–7.27 (m, 1 H), 7.20–7.15 (m, 6 H), 7.14–7.10 (m, 3 H), 6.96 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 1 H), 6.90 (s, 1 H), 6.84–6.76 (m, 2 H), 2.35 (s, 3 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 21.8, 119.2, 119.9, 120.0, 120.1, 121.1, 123.9, 125.9, 126.0, 126.1, 127.5, 127.6, 128.9, 129.0, 129.7, 129.8, 130.0, 131.5, 131.9, 134.6, 135.5, 137.7, 138.7, 140.0, 141.7, 142.9, 143.1, 147.8, 164.4, 167.1. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C35H27N2O: 491.2123; found: 491.2123.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)ethylidene)amino)-N-(3-bromophenyl)benzamide (3h): Yield: 91%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3772, 3050, 3009, 2922, 2852, 1938, 1661, 1589, 1553, 1418, 1351, 1313, 1300, 1286, 1251, 1224, 1180, 1158, 1043, 773, 724, 695, 625 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 11.04 (s, 1 H), 8.23–8.20 (m, 1 H), 7.93 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.57–7.52 (m, 3 H), 7.49–7.47 (m, 2 H), 7.29 (td, J = 7.5, 0.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.24–7.19 (m, 3 H), 7.17 (s, 1 H), 7.16–7.13 (m, 2 H), 7.10 (s, 1 H), 7.07 (dd, J = 6.5, 1.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.01 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 6.89 (s, 1 H), 6.85–6.80 (m, 2 H), 2.35 (s, 3 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 21.8, 118.4, 118.8, 120.0, 120.1, 121.1, 121.2, 122.6, 122.8, 125.8, 126.0, 126.3, 126.7, 127.4, 127.6, 128.8, 129.8, 129.9, 130.2, 130.4, 131.4, 131.5, 132.1, 134.8, 135.5, 137.8, 140.1, 141.8, 143.2, 143.4, 143.7, 164.4, 167.2. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C35H26BrN2O: 571.1206; found: 571.1213.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)ethylidene)amino)-N-(p-toluenesulfonyl)benzamide (3i): Yield: 88%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3465, 3361, 3271, 3171, 3040, 2917, 2854, 2363, 1920, 1715, 1658, 1539, 1512, 1473, 1446, 1405, 1319, 1281, 1246, 1176, 1128, 1089, 1039, 1014, 983, 938, 895, 851, 815, 777, 728, 693, 664, 621 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.75 (s, 1 H), 8.22 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.93 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 7.54 (dd, J = 11.7, 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.47 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.36 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2 H), 7.28 (dd, J = 10.9, 4.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.18 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2 H), 7.11 (dd, J = 6.1, 3.3 Hz, 3 H), 6.98 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.90 (s, 1 H), 6.84–6.79 (m, 1 H), 6.77 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.34 (s, 3 H), 2.20 (s, 3 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 21.0, 21.8, 119.3, 119.9, 120.0, 121.0, 121.1, 125.9, 126.0, 127.4, 127.5, 128.9, 129.5, 129.7, 130.0, 131.4, 131.7, 133.4, 135.5, 136.2, 137.7, 140.0, 141.7, 142.8, 143.0, 147.8, 164.2, 170.0. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C36H29N2O: 505.2279; found: 505.2273.(Z)-2-((2-(9H-Fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)ethylidene)amino)-N-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)benzamide (3j): Yield: 75%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3163, 3057, 2961, 3919, 2850, 2359, 1910, 1717, 1658, 1594, 1558, 1537, 1502, 1469, 1446, 1405, 1313, 1280, 1252, 1176, 1130, 1092, 1043, 937, 880, 862, 826, 777, 728, 695, 662, 620 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.84 (s, 1 H), 8.32 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 8.03 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.64 (dd, J = 11.5, 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.57 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.42–7.36 (m, 2 H), 7.30–7.26 (m, 4 H), 7.22 (dd, J = 6.7, 3.1 Hz, 3 H), 7.18 (s, 1 H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 6.98 (s, 1 H), 6.93 (td, J = 7.7, 0.9 Hz, 1 H), 6.86 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.44 (s, 3 H), 2.20 (s, 3 H), 2.15 (s, 3 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 19.3, 19.8, 21.7, 117.4, 119.1, 119.9, 120.0, 120.9, 121.2, 121.3, 125.9, 126.0, 126.1, 127.5, 127.6, 128.9, 129.7, 129.9, 130.0, 131.4, 131.7, 132.1, 134.8, 135.6, 136.5, 1370, 137.8, 140.0, 141.7, 142.9, 142.9, 147.7, 134.1, 166.9. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + H] calcd for C37H31N2O: 519.2436; found: 519.2438. (Z)-2-((1-(4-Bromophenyl)-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)ethylidene) amino)-N-phenylbenzamide (3k): Yield: 84%; yellow solid; Rf (10% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.47. FTIR (KBr): 3645, 3052, 3010, 2970, 2932, 2363, 1942, 1913, 1665, 1589, 1523, 1476, 1446, 1417, 1285, 1249, 1159, 1126, 1064, 994, 956, 877, 768, 726, 674, 623 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.55 (s, 1 H), 8.25–8.21 (m, 1 H), 7.93–7.91 (m, 2 H), 7.58–7.53 (m, 4 H), 7.49–7.42 (m, 3 H), 7.33–7.29 (m, 1 H), 7.21 (dd, J = 10.8, 4.3 Hz, 4 H), 7.18 (d, J = 0.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.17 (dd, J = 2.5, 1.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.05 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.99 (dd, J = 10.0, 3.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.88–6.85 (m, 2 H), 6.80–6.78 (m, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 118.2, 120.0, 120.1, 120.2, 120.9, 121.2, 124.1, 125.8, 126.5, 127.3, 127.6, 127.7, 129.2, 130.0, 130.1, 130.2, 131.6, 132.0, 132.6, 135.3, 136.3, 137.6, 138.6, 140.1, 141.9, 143.6, 147.5, 164.2, 166.4. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C34H24BrN2O: 557.1052; found: 557.1053.(Z)-N-(3-Bromophenyl)-2-((1-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)ethylidene)amino)benzamide (3l): Yield: 83%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.48. FTIR (KBr): 3060, 2923, 2850, 1668, 1589, 1531, 1478, 1445, 1417, 1304, 1284, 1247, 1171, 1121, 1072, 1007, 859, 835, 774, 727, 680, 621 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.78 (s, 1 H), 8.24–8.21 (m, 1 H), 7.92–7.89 (m, 2 H), 7.56 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 4 H), 7.52 (dd, J = 6.9, 5.0 Hz, 2 H), 7.47 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.44–7.41 (m, 1 H), 7.30 (dt, J = 7.5, 3.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.23–7.20 (m, 1 H), 7.18 (s, 2 H), 7.09 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.06–7.03 (m, 2 H), 6.87 (dd, J = 7.6, 1.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.85 (s, 1 H), 6.82–6.80 (m, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 117.9, 118.2, 120.1, 120.3, 121.0, 121.3, 122.7, 122.8, 125.8, 125.9, 126.7, 126.9, 127.5, 127.9, 127.7, 130.1, 130.2, 130.3, 130.5, 131.6, 132.2, 132.7, 135.2, 136.4, 137.6, 139.8, 140.1, 141.9, 143.9, 147.4, 164.2, 166.5. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 4] calcd for C34H23Br2N2O: 637.0177; found: 637.1037.(Z)-N-(3-Bromophenyl)-2-((2-(2,7-dibromo-9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenylethylidene)amino)benzamide (3m): Yield: 69%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.49. FTIR (KBr): 3056, 2919, 2849, 1734, 1671, 1589, 1533, 1476, 1447, 1422, 1307, 1251, 1063, 1003, 952, 879, 810, 773, 696 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 10.97 (s, 1 H), 8.30–8.26 (m, 1 H), 8.00–7.97 (m, 2 H), 7.62 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.58–7.54 (m, 2 H), 7.49 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.43 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.41–7.35 (m, 3 H), 7.31 (dd, J = 8.1, 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.24–7.21 (m, 2 H), 7.14 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.06 (dd, J = 6.8, 1.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.01 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.98 (s, 1 H), 6.83–6.79 (m, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 118.4, 121.1, 121.2, 121.3, 121.4, 121.5, 121.9, 122.6, 122.9, 124.6, 126.1, 126.8, 127.0, 128.7, 129.2, 129.6, 130.2, 131.9, 132.1, 133.0, 136.7, 137.2, 137.9, 139.3, 139.7, 140.0, 141.3, 147.0, 164.0, 166.1. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 6] calcd for C34H21Br3N2O: 716.9222; found: 716.9244.(E)-5-Bromo-2-((2-bromo-2(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenyl ethylidene)amino)benzamide (4a): Yield: 60%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.43. FTIR (KBr): 3400, 3059, 1664, 1604, 1576, 1462, 1447, 1408, 1344, 1315, 1263, 1204, 1181, 1096, 1056, 1024, 936, 851, 811, 779, 730, 691, 649, 620 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.52 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 8.23 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.98 (dd, J = 5.3, 3.3 Hz, 2 H), 7.87 (s, 1 H), 7.61 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.56 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.50–7.46 (m, 1 H), 7.39 (ddd, J = 9.6, 7.0, 4.0 Hz, 3 H), 7.31 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.25 (ddd, J = 7.3, 6.8, 3.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.17 (dd, J = 6.4, 2.1 Hz, 1 H), 6.98 (td, J = 7.8, 1.1 Hz, 1 H), 6.62 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 6.05 (s, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 113.1, 119.3, 119.9, 120.0, 120.6, 124.4, 126.4, 126.6, 127.6, 127.9, 128.6, 129.5, 129.6, 130.4, 132.7, 134.1, 134.2, 134.9, 136.2, 136.3, 139.9, 140.3, 141.5, 146.2, 165.6, 166.6. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 4] calcd for C28H19Br2N2O: 560.9864; found: 560.9847.(E)-2-((2-Bromo-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-(p-toluenesulfonyl) ethylidene)amino)benzamide (4b): Yield: 75%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.45. FTIR (KBr): 3608, 3440, 3341, 3159, 3059, 2919, 2852, 1670, 1563, 1492, 1471, 1445, 1374, 1290, 1267, 1204, 1181, 1113, 1059, 1019, 977, 926, 834, 777, 727, 660, 624 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.51 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 8.11–8.07 (m, 1 H), 7.96 (s, 1 H), 7.88 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2 H), 7.61–7.53 (m, 2 H), 7.39–7.33 (m, 2 H), 7.26–7.18 (m, 4 H), 7.06 (dd, J = 5.9, 3.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.01–6.97 (m, 1 H), 6.74–6.71 (m, 1 H), 5.95 (s, 1 H), 2.33 (s, 3 H); 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 21.7, 114.2, 119.0, 119.9, 120.0, 124.7, 125.7, 126.4, 127.6, 128.0, 128.7, 129.5, 130.2, 130.3, 131.4, 131.8, 132.2, 136.5, 136.6, 139.6, 140.3, 141.5, 143.4, 147.5, 164.9, 168.3. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C29H22BrN2O: 495.0995; found: 495.1180.(E)-2-((2-Bromo-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenyl­ethylidene)amino)benzenesulfonamide (4c): Yield: 73%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.44. FTIR (KBr): 3358, 3260, 2920, 1915, 1641, 1611, 1530, 1444, 1344, 1276, 1254, 1209, 1171, 1128, 1070, 1024, 942, 857, 832, 807, 772, 689, 620 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.58 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.98–7.93 (m, 3 H), 7.66 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.61 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.45–7.39 (m, 3 H), 7.38–7.35 (m, 2 H), 7.29–7.24 (m, 2 H), 7.16–7.11 (m, 2 H), 7.00 (td, J = 7.9, 1.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.90–6.87 (m, 1 H), 5.39 (s, 2 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 21.0, 21.8, 119.3, 120.0, 121.0, 121.1, 125.9, 126.0, 127.4, 127.5, 128.9, 129.5, 129.7, 129.8, 131.4, 131.7, 133.4, 134.6, 135.5, 136.2, 137.7, 140.0, 141.7, 142.8, 143.0, 147.8, 164.2, 166.9. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C27H20BrN2O2S: 517.0408; found: 517.0420.(E)-2-((2-Bromo-2-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)-1-phenyl­ethylidene)amino)-5-iodobenzamide (4d): Yield: 72%; yellow solid; Rf (15% EtOAc–Hexane): 0.43. FTIR (KBr): 3370, 3327, 3145, 3063, 2921, 2774, 2252, 1959, 1903, 1811, 1669, 1596, 1565, 1445, 1404, 1347, 1314, 1260, 1202, 1152, 1087, 1052, 1022, 935, 904, 872, 845, 801, 774, 727, 688, 645, 622 cm–1. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3/TMS): δ = 8.52 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 8.40 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1 H), 7.99–7.96 (m, 2 H), 7.84 (d, J = 2.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.60 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.56–7.54 (m, 1 H), 7.47–7.44 (m, 1 H), 7.41–7.33 (m, 5 H), 7.30 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.27–7.19 (m, 2 H), 6.97 (td, J = 7.8, 1.1 Hz, 1 H), 6.49–6.46 (m, 1 H). 13C NMR (CDCl3/TMS, 100.6 MHz): δ = 90.1, 113.2, 120.0, 120.1, 120.9, 124.5, 126.5, 126.6, 127.7, 128.0, 128.8, 129.6, 129.7, 130.5, 132.9, 134.2, 136.3, 136.4, 139.9, 140.1, 140.4, 140.9, 141.6, 146.9, 165.6, 166.8. HRMS (ESI): m/z [M + 2] calcd for C28H19BrIN2O: 606.9705; found: 606.9719.

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Figure 1 Selected materials and bioactive molecules based on the 9-substituted fluorene core structure
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Scheme 1 Synthesis of compound 3a
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Figure 2 Various propargyl alcohols 1ac and aryl aminoamides 2ak
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Figure 3 Synthesized compounds 3am
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Figure 4 ORTEP diagram of compound 3e (CCDC-1967615)[27]
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Scheme 2 Plausible mechanism for the formation of compound 3
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Scheme 3 Synthesis of compound 4a
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Figure 5 ORTEP diagram of compound 4a (CCDC-1957144)[27]
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Figure 6 Synthesized compounds 4ad
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Scheme 4 Plausible mechanism for the formation of compound 4