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Fatal road traffic accidents and their relationship with head injuries: An epidemiological survey of five years
05 April 2017 (online)
In depth studies of fatal vehicular accidents provide valuable data for implementing effective emergency services to reduce the trauma related mortality and strengthening legal measures in peak hours of fatal accidents. We aimed to study, pattern of injuries especially fatal traumatic brain injuries occurring in vehicular accidents. Postmortem reports and clinical records of victims of road traffic accident autopsied during the period of 2001–2005 at Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were analyzed retrospectively. Out of total 7008 medico legal autopsies conducted during the study period, 2472 (35.27 %) were of vehicular accidents. The male/female ratio was 7.49:1. Commonest age group affected was between 21-40 years involving 1341 (54.24%) cases. Pre-hospital mortality was in 985 (39.84 %) cases. Fatal traumatic brain injuries were seen in 1699 (68.73%) cases. Skull fractures were found in 1183 (69.63%) cases of head injury; most common bone fractured was temporal bone (n=559, 47.25%). The commonest variety of intracranial hemorrhage was subdural hemorrhage (n=1514, 89.11%). The craniotomy was done in 297 (17.48%) cases; maximum mortality (41.07%) was seen within 4–ays. Most commonly injured abdominal organ was liver (n=532, 21.52%). No significant difference was evident in incidence of fatal vehicular accident on weekends and weekdays. However November month took maximum toll of deaths (n=273, 11.04%) of total vehicular accident fatalities in five year duration. 53.20% of fatal accident occurred between 6 PM and 6 AM. The results of study emphasize the need to improve the pre hospital care with provision of trauma services at site and to establish neurosurgical facilities with trauma registry.
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