Subscribe to RSS
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance characterization of traditional homeopathically manufactured copper (Cuprum metallicum) and plant (Gelsemium sempervirens) medicines and controls
Received04 March 2017
revised17 August 2017
accepted28 August 2017
04 January 2018 (online)
Background: NMR proton relaxation is sensitive to the dynamics of the water molecule H2O, through the interaction of the spin of the proton (1H) with external magnetic and electromagnetic fields.
Methods: We measured dilution and potentization processes through measurements of 1H spin-lattice T1 and spin–spin T2 relaxation times. In order to interpret the recorded fluctuations in T1- or T2-values, experimental data were linearized by investigating how the area under a fluctuating time = f(dilution) curve (dilution integral or DI) changes with dilution. Two kinds of fitting procedures were considered: chi-square fitting with a goodness-of-fit probability, and least absolute deviations criterion with Pearson's linear correlation coefficient.
Results: We showed that fluctuations are not attributable to random noise and/or experimental errors, evidencing a memory effect quantifiable by the slope of the DI = f(dilution) straight line. For all experiments, correlation coefficients were found to lie above 0.9999, against 0.999 for random noise. The discrimination between experimental slopes and slopes associated with random noise data was very good at a five-sigma level of confidence (i.e. probability 3 × 10−7). Discrimination between experimental slopes at a five-sigma level was possible in most cases, with three exceptions: gelsemium aqua pura v gelsemium dilution (four-sigma); copper aqua pura v gelsemium aqua pura (four-sigma) and copper simple dilution v gelsemium simple dilution (three-sigma). All potentized samples show very good discrimination (at least nine-sigma level) against aqua pura, lactose or simple dilution. It was possible to transform the associated relaxation times into a molecular rotational correlation time τc and an average spin–spin distance d. Our experiments thus point to a considerable slowing down of molecular movements (τc > 1300 ps or T = 224–225 K) around water molecules up to a distance of 3.7 Å, values. It was also possible to rule out other possible mechanisms of relaxation (diffusive motion, 17O-1H relaxation or coupling with the electronic spin, S = 1, of dissolved dioxygen molecules).
Conclusion: There is clear evidence that homeopathic solutions cannot be considered as pure water as commonly assumed. Instead, we have evidenced a clear memory effect upon dilution/potentization of a substance (water, lactose, copper, gelsemium) reflected by different rotational correlation times and average H⋯H distances. A possible explanation for such a memory effect may lie in the formation of mesoscopic water structures around nanoparticles and/or nanobubbles mediated by zero-point fluctuations of the vacuum electromagnetic field as suggested by quantum field theories. The existence of an Avogadro's ‘wall’ for homeopathically-prepared medicines is not supported by our data. Rather it appears that all dilutions have a specific material configuration determined by the potentized substance, also by the chemical nature of the containers, and dissolved gases and the electromagnetic environment. This sensitivity of homeopathically-prepared medicines to electromagnetic fields may be amplified by the highly non-linear processing routinely applied in the preparation of homeopathic medicines. Future work is needed in such directions. The time is now ripe for a demystification of the preparation of homeopathic remedies.
• The signature of 2 homeopathic medicines, even in highest dilutions, is identified using NMR relaxations time's measurements.
• Discriminant analysis between a simple dilution and homeopathic potentizations.
• Two homeopathic potentized medicines present specific NMR signals.
- 1 Chikramane P.S., Kalia D., Suresh A.K., Kane S.G., Bellare J.R. Why extreme dilutions reach non-zero asymptotes: a nanoparticulate hypothesis based on froth flotation. Langmuir 2012; 28: 15864-15875.
- 2 Chikramane P.S., Suresh A.K., Bellare J.R., Kane S.G. Extreme homeopathic dilutions retain starting materials: a nanoparticulate perspective. Homeopathy 2010; 99: 231-242.
- 3 Upadhyay R.P., Nayak C. Homeopathy emerging as nanomedicine. Int J High Dilution Res 2011; 10: 299-310.
- 4 Bell I.R., Muralidharan S., Schwartz G.E. Nanoparticle characterization of traditional homeopathically-manufactured silver (Argentum Metallicum) medicines and placebo controls. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 2015; 6: 311 10.4172/2157-7439.1000311.
- 5 Ives J.A., Moffett J.R., Arun P., Lam D. et al. Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in glass-exposed aqueous solutions. Homeopathy 2010; 99: 15-24.
- 6 Cartwright S. Pyridinium-N-phenolates as molecular probes of serially diluted and agitated solutions: preliminary results. Homeopathy 2014; 103: 65
- 7 Demangeat J.L. Gas nanobubbles and aqueous nanostructures: the crucial role of dynamization. Homeopathy 2015; 104 (02) 101-115.
- 8 Mathie R.T., Van Wassenhoven M., Jacobs J. et al. Meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled, trials of individualised homeopathic treatment. Eur J Integr Med 2015; 7: 16 10.1016/j.eujim2015.09.042.
- 9 Mathie R.T., Roniger H., Van Wassenhoven M. et al. Method for appraising model validity of randomised controlled trials of homeopathic treatment: multi-rater concordance study. BMC Med Res Methodol 2012; 12: 49
- 10 Editorial. The end of homeopathy. Lancet 2005; 366: 690
- 11 Rutten L., Mathie R.T., Fisher P., Goossens M., Van Wassenhoven M. Plausibility and evidence: the case of homeopathy. Med Health Care Philos 2013; 16 (03) 525-532.
- 12 European Pharmacopoeia (2014) 8.2 7/2014.
- 13 Demangeat J.L. NMR water proton relaxation in unheated and heated ultrahigh aqueous dilutions of histamine: Evidence for an air-dependent supramolecular organization of water. J Mol Liq 2009; 144: 32-39.
- 14 Tsukihara T., Aoyama H., Yamashita E. et al. Structures of metal sites of oxidized bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 A. Science August 1995; 269 (5227): 1069-1074.
- 15 Hodiamont. In: Similia. (ed). Homéopathie et Physiologie. 1970. ISBN: 2-7008-0176-8
- 16 Hahnemann S. In: Schmidt, Kunzli. (eds). Chronic Diseases. 1828. Maisonneuve; 1969
- 17 Allen T. Encyclopedia of Pure Materia Medica. New York, USA. Philadelphia, USA: Boericke & Tafel; 1879.
- 18 Bradford T. Index of homeopathic provings. New Delhi, India: B Jain Publishers; 2000.
- 19 Duke J., Hughes R. Cyclopaedia of drug pathogenesy, London, UK, Gould. New Delhi, India: B Jain Publishers; 1891.
- 20 Allen H.C. Allens keynotes. New Delhi, India: B Jain Publishers; 2000.
- 21 Dorfman P., Guillemain J., Nevy P., Tetau M. Double-blind drug pathogenesy of cuprum metallicum 30CH. Cah Biothérapie 1987; 93: 47-56.
- 22 Mahata C.R. Dielectric dispersion studies of some potentised homeopathic medicines reveal structured vehicle. Homeopathy 2013; 102 (04) 262-267.
- 23 Betello C.F. Antioxidante effect in vitro of the homeopathic medicine arsenicum album, cuprum metallicum, manganum and zincum metallicum. (Thesis) Brazil: Faculdade de Ciências da Saude de Säo Paulo; 2002.
- 24 Smits T. Inspiring homeopathy: treatment of universal layers. 2013. ISBN: 9789076189000
- 25 Van Wassenhoven M. First line medicine – clinical verification – verification of homeopathic symptoms. Cuprum metallicum. 2008. ISBN: 978-2-87491-003-6
- 26 Boericke W., Boericke O.E. Homeopathic materia medica. 1927. ISBN: 0766183882
- 27 Santini R., Tessier M., Bellon P. First experimental arguments in favour of the effect of very weak doses of copper on digestive motricity in mice and rabbits. Ultra Low Doses. 1991. Taylor & Francis; 3-10.
- 28 Hariveau E., Nolen P., Holtzscherer A. A study of the effectiveness of ultra low doses of copper in the treatment of hemodialysis-related muscle cramps. RCT. In: Doutremepuich C. (ed). Ultra Low Doses. 1991. London, UK: Taylor & Francis; 145-149.
- 29 Linde K., Clausius N., Ramirez G. et al. Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet 1997; 350: 834-843.
- 30 Vermeulen F., Johnston L. Plants. Homeopathic and medicinal uses from a botanical family perspective. Saltire Books; 2011. ISBN: 978-0-955-90655-8
- 31 Boericke. Materia medica. Philadelphia, USA. 1879.
- 32 Mishra N., Muraludharan K.C., Paranjpe A.S. et al. An explanatory study on scientific investigations in homeopathy using medical analyzer. J Altern Complement Med 2011; 17 (08) 705-710.
- 33 Marzotto M., Olioso D., Brizzi M. et al. Extreme sensitivity of gene expression in human SH-SY5Y neurocytes to ultra-low doses of Gelsemium sempervirens . BMC Complement Altern Med 2014; 14: 104
- 34 Dimpfel W., Biller A. In vivo and in vitro neurophysiological findings in the rat in the presence of Coffea D6, Gelsemium D4 and Veratrum D6 extracts. Scientific framework of homeopathy. 2014.
- 35 Meyer L., Boujedaini N., Patte-Mensah C., Mensah-Nyagan A.G. Pharmacological effects of gelsemine on anxiety-like behavior in rat. Behav Brain Res 2013; 15 (253) 90-94.
- 36 Van Wassenhoven M. First line medicine – clinical verification – verification of homeopathic symptoms. 2008. ISBN: 978-2-87491-003-6
- 37 Magnani P., Conforti A., Zanolin E., Marzotto M., Bellavite P. Dose-effect study of Gelsemium sempervirens in high dilutions on anxiety-related responses in mice. Psychopharmacology 2010; 210 (04) 533-545.
- 38 Bellavite P., Conforti A., Marzotto M. et al. Testing homeopathy in mouse emotional response models: pooled analysis of two series of studies. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2012; 2012: 954374
- 39 Dorfman P., Tetau M. Applications cliniques de la recherche pharmacologique. Cahiers de Biothérapie n°125; 1993.
- 40 Paris A., Schmidlin S., Mouret S. et al. Effect of Gelsemium 5CH and 15CH on anticipatory anxiety: a phase III, single-centre, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2012; 26 (06) 751-760.
- 41 Van Wassenhoven M, Goyens M, Capieaux E, Devos P. Nanoparticle characterization of traditional homeopathically manufactured Cuprum metallicum and Gelsemium sempervirens medicines and controls. Homeopathy. In press.
- 42 Demangeat J.L. Nanosized solvent superstructures in ultramolecular aqueous dilutions: twenty years' research using water proton relaxation. Homeopathy 2013; 102: 87-105.
- 43 Conte R.R., Berliocchi H., Lasne Y., Vernot G. Théorie des hautes dilutions et aspects expérimentaux. Polytechnica; 1996. ISBN: 2-84054-046-0
- 44 Press W.H., Teukolsky S.A., Vetterling W.T., Plannery B.P. Numerical recipes in C. 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press; 1992.
- 45 Qvist J., Mattea C., Sunde E.P., Halle B. Rotational dynamics in supercooled water from nuclear spin relaxation and molecular simulations. J Chem Phys 2012; 136: 204505
- 46 Sen S., Gupta K.S., Coey J.M.D. Mesoscopic structure formation in condensed matter due to vacuum fluctuations. Phys Rev B 2015; 92: 155115
- 47 Abragam A. Les principes du magnétisme nucléaire. Paris: Presses universitaires de France; 1961: 292-298.
- 48 Lang E.W., Girlich D., Lüdemann H.-D., Piulell L., Müller D. Proton spin–lattice relaxation rate in supercooled H2O and H2 17O under high pressure. J Chem Phys 1990; 93: 4796-4803.
- 49 Mortimer C.H. The oxygen content of air-saturated freshwaters over ranges of temperature and atmospheric pressure of limnological interest. Mitt Int Ver Theor Angew Limnol 1981; 22: 1-23.
- 50 Milgrom L.R., King K.R., Lee J., Pinkus A.S. On the investigation of homeopathic potencies using low resolution NMR T2 relaxation times: an experimental and critical survey of the work of Roland Conte et al. Br Homeopath J 2001; 90: 5-13.
- 51 Bono I., Del Giudice E., Gamberale L., Henry M. Emergence of the coherence of liquid water. Water 2012; 4: 510-532.
- 52 Henry M. The topological and quantum structure of zoemorphic water. In: Lo Nostro P., Ninham B.W. (eds). Aqua Incognita: Why Ice Floats on Water and Galileo 400 Years on. 2014. Ballarat: Connor Court Pub.; Chap IX, pp 197–239