TumorDiagnostik & Therapie 2018; 39(05): 301-306
DOI: 10.1055/a-0596-8629
Thieme Onkologie aktuell
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Sport und Bewegung mit und nach Krebs – wer profitiert, was ist gesichert?

Exercise and Physical Activity During and after Cancer – Who Benefits most, What is Proven?
Karen Steindorf
1  Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg
,
Martina E. Schmidt
1  Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg
,
Philipp Zimmer
1  Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg
2  Institut für Kreislaufforschung und Sportmedizin, Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
29 May 2018 (online)

Zusammenfassung

Die Diagnose „Krebs“ und die anschließende medizinische Therapie verleiten viele Patienten dazu ihre körperlichen Aktivitäten einzuschränken. Doch gerade Sport und bewegungstherapeutische Programme sind effektive supportive Maßnahmen im Kampf gegen den Krebs und manche Nebenwirkungen. Zudem haben die Betroffenen eine einzigartige Chance, selbst aktiv an ihrem Genesungsprozess mitzuarbeiten. Was zu berücksichtigen ist, zeigt dieser Beitrag.

Abstract

A growing number of literature reports positive effects of physical activity and exercise. These effects concern prevention, mortality and progress of cancer. Furthermore they show a reduction of disease- and treatment-specific side effects, which implies a better patients’ quality of life. Evidence shows a decreased mortality risk in patients with physically active cancer of colon, breast, ovaries and prostate. Activity recommendations for patients with cancer do not differ from those for healthy persons. However, a decrease in physical activity can be observed in many cancer patients after diagnosis, and this fact concludes to a reduced physical capacity – although just physical capacity helps to overcome the burden of medical treatment and to recover. In fact, tailored exercise programs can counteract a decrease in physical capacity successfully. Further they reduce side effects such as fatigue, incontinence and lymphedema. Moreover, first studies report a positive influence on: chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathies, cancer-related cognitive impairments, bone health and sleep. Finally, an enormous number of investigations showed that exercise interventions can improve psychosocial factors (e. g. mood and self-esteem). Except for very few conditions, such as extremely impaired blood cell counts and days when cardio- or nephrotoxic drugs are given, physical activity should be recommended. Especially during medical treatment, physicians and therapists are prompted to interact closely in order to prevent general activity prohibitions. Physical activity and exercise programs represent a unique and low-cost chance for cancer patients to influence the course of their own disease positively. More effort is necessary to improve professional activity offers for cancer patients and survivors and to specify activity recommendations.