Int J Sports Med 2019; 40(05): 317-330
DOI: 10.1055/a-0850-0016
Training & Testing
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Discipline and Sex Differences in Angle-specific Isokinetic Analysis in Elite Skiers

Marine Alhammoud
1  Inter-university Laboratory of Human Movement Biology (EA 7424), Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, Lyon, France
2  French Ski Federation, Annecy, France
Baptiste Morel
3  Laboratory “Movement, Interactions, Performance” (EA 4334), Le Mans University, Le Mans, France
Clint Hansen
4  Department of Neurology, Christian-Albrechts-Universitat zu Kiel Medizinische Fakultat, Kiel, Germany
Mathew Wilson
5  Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre ASPETAR, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar
Regis Mecca
2  French Ski Federation, Annecy, France
6  Aqua Kiné Sport, Challes-les-Eaux, France
Erick Nael
7  Geronimo Sport Academy, Villars-de-Lans, France
Christophe Hautier
1  Inter-university Laboratory of Human Movement Biology (EA 7424), Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, Lyon, France
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted 22 January 2019

Publication Date:
11 March 2019 (online)


Standard outcomes of traditional isokinetic testing do not detect differences between various muscle mechanical properties. This study i) explored a novel analysis throughout the range of motion based on statistical parametric mapping and ii) examined the impact of sex and discipline on hamstrings/quadriceps torque in elite alpine skiers. Twenty-eight national team skiers (14 females, 14 males; 14 technical, 14 speed) undertook an isokinetic evaluation of the knee flexors/extensors (range 30–90°, 0° representing full extension). There was no effect of sex (p=0.864, d=0.03) and discipline (p=0.360, d=0.17) on maximal hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio and no effect of discipline on maximal torque (p>0.156, d≤0.25). Hamstrings torque and hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio were lower in females than males toward knee extension only (p<0.05). Quadriceps torque was greater after 72° of knee flexion in technicians than downhill skiers (p<0.05). The current data showed that statistical parametric mapping analysis identified angle-specific differences that could not be evidenced when analyzing only maximal torques and reconstructed ratios. This may enhance screening methods to identify pathologic knee function or monitor rehabilitation programs, and inform sex- and discipline-specific training in alpine skiing.