Ultraschall Med 2021; 42(04): 367-378
DOI: 10.1055/a-1248-8896
Guidelines & Recommendations

Screening, Management and Delivery in Twin Pregnancy

Artikel in mehreren Sprachen: English | deutsch
Constantin von Kaisenberg*
1  Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
Philipp Klaritsch*
2  Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University Graz, Austria
Nicole Ochsenbein-Kölble
3  Department of Obstetrics, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Markus Eugen Hodel
4  Obstetrics, Luzerner Kantonsspital, Lucerne, Switzerland
Monika Nothacker
5  AWMF-Institut für Medizinisches Wissensmanagement (AWMF-IMWi), University of Marburg, Germany
Kurt Hecher
6  Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
› Institutsangaben
Gefördert durch: Deutsche Stiftung Frauengesundheit
Gefördert durch: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe (DGGG)
Gefördert durch: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ultraschall in der Medizin (DEGUM)


The following AWMF guideline (DGGG/AGG & DEGUM responsible) deals with the diagnosis, screening and management of twins as well as the timing and mode of birth.

Twin pregnancies can be classified as dichorionic diamniotic (DC DA), monochorionic diamniotic (MC DA) and monochorionic monoamniotic (MC MA) which are always monochorionic.

Twin pregnancies can be concordant (both twins are affected) or discordant (only one twin is affected) for chromosomal defects, malformations, growth restriction and hemodynamic disorders.

Chorionicity is the prognostically most significant parameter. Monochorial twins have significantly higher risks of intrauterine morbidity and mortality compared to dichorial twins.

In particular, general aspects of twin pregnancies such as dating, determination of chorionicity and amnionicity, the labeling of twin fetuses and the perinatal switch phenomenon are discussed.

Routine monitoring of MC and DC twin pregnancies with ultrasound at 11–13+ 6 weeks of gestation for chromosomal defects, invasive prenatal diagnosis, first-trimester NT or CRL discrepancies, early diagnosis of fetal anatomical defects, and management of twins with abnormalities, including selective fetocide, is described.

Second trimester screening and management for preterm birth, intrauterine selective growth restriction (sFGR), classification of monochorial twins with sFGR, and management of the surviving twin after the death of the co-twin are described.

Complications exclusively affecting MC twins include Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) with the important topics screening, prognosis, complications of laser therapy, timing of delivery, risks for brain abnormalities and delayed neurological development, Twin Anemia-Polycythemia Sequence (TAPS) and Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion (TRAP) Sequence. This also includes MC MA twins as well as conjoined twins.

Finally, the birth mode and time for DC and MC twin pregnancies are described.

The information is summarized in 62 recommendations for action, 4 tables and 8 illustrations with comprehensive background texts.

The guideline is an international guideline adaptation (ISUOG, NICE) as well as a systematic literature search and is up-to-date.

* Constantin von Kaisenberg and Philipp Klaritsch share first authorship.


Eingereicht: 29. Mai 2020

Angenommen: 09. August 2020

05. Oktober 2020 (online)

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