Int J Sports Med
DOI: 10.1055/a-1386-4985
Training & Testing

Propulsive Force of Upper Limbs and its Relationship to Swim Velocity in the Butterfly Stroke

1  Department of Sport Sciences, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Bragança, Portugal
2  Research Center in Sports, Health and Human Development (CIDESD), Vila Real, Portugal
,
1  Department of Sport Sciences, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Bragança, Portugal
2  Research Center in Sports, Health and Human Development (CIDESD), Vila Real, Portugal
,
1  Department of Sport Sciences, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Bragança, Portugal
2  Research Center in Sports, Health and Human Development (CIDESD), Vila Real, Portugal
,
2  Research Center in Sports, Health and Human Development (CIDESD), Vila Real, Portugal
3  Department of Sport Sciences, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
,
2  Research Center in Sports, Health and Human Development (CIDESD), Vila Real, Portugal
3  Department of Sport Sciences, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
› Author Affiliations
Funding This work is supported by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project UIDB/ DTP/04045/2020.

Abstract

The aims of this study were to: (1) verify the sex effect; (2) assess upper limb asymmetry in anthropometrics and propulsive force variables; and (3) identify the main determinants of butterfly swim velocity based on a set of anthropometrics, kinematics, and propulsive force variables. Twenty swimmers (10 males: 15.40±0.30 years; 10 females: 14.43±0.23 years) at the national level were recruited for analysis. A set of anthropometrics, kinematics, and propulsive force variables were measured. Overall, a significant sex effect was verified (p≤0.05). Non-significant differences between upper-limbs were noted for males and females in all variables, except for the dF in males (t=−2.66, p=0.026, d=0.66). Stroke frequency presented the highest contribution, where a one unit increase in the stroke frequency imposed an increase of 0.375 m·s-1 (95CI: 0.105;0.645, p=0.010) in the swim velocity. The swim velocity was predicted by the mean propulsive force, intra-cyclic variation of the swim velocity, and stroke frequency. Overall, swimmers exhibit non-significant differences in the variables assessed. Swim velocity in the butterfly stroke was determined by an interaction of propulsive force and kinematic variables in young swimmers.



Publication History

Received: 26 October 2020

Accepted: 20 January 2021

Publication Date:
16 April 2021 (online)

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