Ultraschall Med 2022; 43(01): 34-57
DOI: 10.1055/a-1562-1455
Guidelines & Recommendations

The EFSUMB Guidelines and Recommendations for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound – Part I: Extraarticular Pathologies

Die EFSUMB-Leitlinien und -Empfehlungen für den muskuloskelettalen Ultraschall. Teil I: Extraartikuläre Pathologien
Daniela Fodor
1   2nd Internal Medicine Department, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Sebastián C Rodriguez-Garcia
2   Rheumatology Department, La Princesa University Hospital, Princesa Health Research Institute, Madrid, Spain
Vito Cantisani
3   Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomo-pathological Sciences, “Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy
Hilde B. Hammer
4   Department of Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Wolfgang Hartung
5   Clinic for Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Asklepios Clinic, Bad Abbach, Germany
Andrea Klauser
6   Department of Radiology, Medical University Innsbruck, Section Head Rheumatology and Sports Imaging, Innsbruck, Austria
Carlo Martinoli
7   Department of Health Science – DISSAL, University of Genova, Italy
8   UO Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy
Lene Terslev
9   Copenhagen Center for Arthritis Research, Center for Rheumatology and Spine Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Fernando Alfageme
10   Dermatology Department, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
David Bong
11   Instituto Poal de Reumatologia Barcelona, EULAR Working Group Anatomy for the Image, University of Barcelona, International University of Catalunya, Spain
Angel Bueno
12   Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain
Paz Collado
13   Rheumatology Department, Transitional Care Clinic, Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Madrid, Spain
Maria Antonietta D’Agostino
14   Istituto di Reumatologia Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, UOC Reumatologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, IRCCS, Rome, Italy
Javier de la Fuente
15   Orthopedic Department, Clinica Pakea de Mutualia, San Sebastián, Spain
Gabriella Iohom
16   Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Cork University Hospital and University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
Jens Kessler
17   Department of Anaesthesiology, Division of Pain Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Manuela Lenghel
18   Radiology Department, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Clara Malattia
19   UOC Clinica Pediatrica e Reumatologia, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetic and Maternal Infantile Sciences (DINOGMI) University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Peter Mandl
20   Division of Rheumatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Dolores Mendoza-Cembranos
21   Department of Dermatology. Hospital Universitario Fundación Jiménez Díaz.Madrid, Spain
Mihaela Micu
22   Rheumatology Division, 2nd Rehabilitation Department, Rehabilitation Clinical Hospital Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Ingrid Möller
11   Instituto Poal de Reumatologia Barcelona, EULAR Working Group Anatomy for the Image, University of Barcelona, International University of Catalunya, Spain
Aurelie Najm
23   Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Levent Özçakar
24   Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
Riccardo Picasso
7   Department of Health Science – DISSAL, University of Genova, Italy
8   UO Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy
Athena Plagou
25   Ultrasound Unit, Private Radiological Institution, Athens, Greece
Xavier Sala-Blanch
26   Department of Anaesthesiology, Hospital Clinic, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Spain
Luca Maria Sconfienza
27   IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano Italy
28   Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milano, Milano, Italy
Oana Serban
1   2nd Internal Medicine Department, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Paolo Simoni
29   Paediatric Imaging Department, “Reine Fabiola” Children’s University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska
30   Department of Radiology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
Christian Tesch
31   Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Praxis, Hamburg, Germany
Plamen Todorov
32   Department of Internal Disease Propaedeutic and Clinical Rheumatology, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Jacqueline Uson
33   Department of Rheumatology Hospital Universitario Móstoles, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain
Violeta Vlad
34   Sf. Maria Hospital, Rheumatology Department, Bucharest, Romania
Federico Zaottini
7   Department of Health Science – DISSAL, University of Genova, Italy
8   UO Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy
Diana Bilous
1   2nd Internal Medicine Department, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Roxana Gutiu
1   2nd Internal Medicine Department, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Michael Pelea
1   2nd Internal Medicine Department, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Anamaria Marian
1   2nd Internal Medicine Department, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Esperanza Naredo
35   Department of Rheumatology, Bone and Joint Research Unit, Hospital Universitario Fundación Jiménez Díaz, IIS Fundación Jiménez Díaz, and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
› Author Affiliations


The first part of the guidelines and recommendations for musculoskeletal ultrasound, produced under the auspices of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB), provides information about the use of musculoskeletal ultrasound for assessing extraarticular structures (muscles, tendons, entheses, ligaments, bones, bursae, fasciae, nerves, skin, subcutaneous tissues, and nails) and their pathologies. Clinical applications, practical points, limitations, and artifacts are described and discussed for every structure. After an extensive literature review, the recommendations have been developed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine and GRADE criteria and the consensus level was established through a Delphi process. The document is intended to guide clinical users in their daily practice.


Der erste Teil der Leitlinien und Empfehlungen für den muskuloskelettalen Ultraschall, die unter der Schirmherrschaft der European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) erstellt wurden, enthält Informationen über den Einsatz des muskuloskelettalen Ultraschalls zur Beurteilung von extraartikulären Strukturen (Muskeln, Sehnen, Gelenke, Bänder, Knochen, Schleimbeutel, Faszien, Nerven, Haut, subkutanes Gewebe und Nägel) und deren Pathologien. Für jede Struktur werden die klinische Anwendung, praktische Punkte, Einschränkungen und Artefakte beschrieben und diskutiert. Nach einer ausführlichen Literaturrecherche wurden die Empfehlungen gemäß den Kriterien des Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine und den GRADE-Kriterien entwickelt, und der Konsensgrad wurde durch die Delphi-Methode ermittelt. Das Dokument ist als Leitfaden für klinische Anwender in der täglichen Praxis gedacht.

Publication History

Received: 24 March 2021

Accepted: 08 July 2021

Article published online:
03 September 2021

© 2021. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

  • References

  • 1 Mandl P, Ciechomska A, Terslev L. et al. Implementation and role of modern musculoskeletal imaging in rheumatological practice in member countries of EULAR. RMD Open 2019; 5: e000950
  • 2 Möller I, Janta I, Backhaus M. et al. The 2017 EULAR standardised procedures for ultrasound imaging in rheumatology. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76: 1974-1979
  • 3 Naredo E, DʼAgostino MA, Conaghan PG. et al. Current state of musculoskeletal ultrasound training and implementation in Europe: results of a survey of experts and scientific societies. Rheumatology 2010; 49: 2438-2443
  • 4 Plagou A, Teh J, Grainger AJ. et al. Recommendations of the ESSR Arthritis Subcommittee on Ultrasonography in Inflammatory Joint Disease. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2016; 20: 496-506
  • 5 Sakellariou G, Conaghan PG, Zhang W. et al. EULAR recommendations for the use of imaging in the clinical management of peripheral joint osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2017; 76: 1484-1494
  • 6 Sconfienza LM, Albano D, Allen G. et al. Clinical indications for musculoskeletal ultrasound updated in 2017 by European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR) consensus. Eur Radiol 2018; 28: 5338-5351
  • 7 Siddle HJ, Mandl P, Aletaha D. et al. The EULAR points to consider for health professionals undertaking musculoskeletal ultrasound for rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 77: 311-313
  • 8 Tagliafico AS, Wilson D, Sconfienza LM. European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR) Research Committee. Encouraging MSK imaging research towards clinical impact is a necessity: opinion paper of the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR). Eur Radiol 2019; 29: 3410-3413
  • 9 Terslev L, Hammer HB, Torp-Pedersen S. et al. EFSUMB minimum training requirements for rheumatologists performing musculoskeletal ultrasound. Ultraschall in Med 2013; 34: 475-477
  • 10 Uson J, Loza E, Möller I. et al. Recommendations for the Use of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance in Patients With Spondyloarthritis, Including Psoriatic Arthritis, and Patients With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Reumatol Clin 2018; 14: 27-35
  • 11 Phillips B, Ball C, Sackett D. et al. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine – Levels of Evidence 1. In: Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. 2009
  • 12 Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE. et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008; 336: 924-926
  • 13 Jenssen C, Gilja OH, Serra AL. et al. European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) Policy Document Development Strategy – Clinical Practice Guidelines, Position Statements and Technological Reviews. Ultrasound Int Open 2019; 5: E2-E10
  • 14 Boyce SH, Murray AD, Jeffrey M. A review of musculoskeletal ultrasound training guidelines and recommendations for sport and exercise medicine physicians. Ultrasound 2013; 21: 155-158
  • 15 Cremerius C, Gradl-Dietsch G, Beeres FJP. et al. Team-based learning for teaching musculoskeletal ultrasound skills: a prospective randomised trial. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2020; DOI: 10.1007/s00068-019-01298-9.
  • 16 Iagnocco A, Naredo E, Bijlsma JW. Becoming a musculoskeletal ultrasonographer. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2013; 27: 271-281
  • 17 European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB). Online: www.efsumb.org
  • 18 Naredo E, Bijlsma JW, Conaghan PG. et al. Recommendations for the content and conduct of European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) musculoskeletal ultrasound courses. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67: 1017-1022
  • 19 Janta I, Terslev L, Ammitzbøll-Danielsen M. et al. EFSUMB COMPASS for Rheumatologists dissemination and implementation--an international survey. Med Ultrason 2016; 18: 42-46
  • 20 Iagnocco A, Terslev L, Backhaus M. et al. Educational recommendations for the conduct, content and format of EULAR musculoskeletal ultrasound Teaching the Teachers Courses. RMD Open 2015; 1: e000139
  • 21 Iagnocco A, Porta F, Cuomo G. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Study Group of the Italian Society of Rheumatology. et al. The Italian MSUS Study Group recommendations for the format and content of the report and documentation in musculoskeletal ultrasonography in rheumatology. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2014; 53: 367-373
  • 22 European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR). Online: www.essr.org
  • 23 Klauser AS, McNally E, Chhem RK. Training Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Specialists: European Education and Clinical Guidelines: Work in Progress. In: The Practice of Radiology Education. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010: 143-159
  • 24 Akram Q. Training issues in ultrasound and the benefits of an International Fellowship. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2018; 57: 947-948
  • 25 DʼAgostino MA, Terslev L, Aegerter P. et al. Scoring ultrasound synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis: a EULAR-OMERACT ultrasound taskforce. Part 1: definition and development of a standardised, consensus-based scoring system. RMD Open 2017; 3: e000428
  • 26 Mandl P, Studenic P, Filippucci E . OMERACT Ultrasound Cartilage Task Force Group. et al. Development of semiquantitative ultrasound scoring system to assess cartilage in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2019; 58: 1802-1811
  • 27 Naredo E, DʼAgostino MA, Wakefield RJ. et al. Reliability of a consensus-based ultrasound score for tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2013; 72: 1328-1334
  • 28 Terslev L, Naredo E, Iagnocco A. et al. Defining enthesitis in spondyloarthritis by ultrasound: results of a Delphi process and of a reliability reading exercise. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2014; 66: 741-748
  • 29 Roth J, Jousse-Joulin S, Magni-Manzoni S. Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Ultrasound Group. et al. Definitions for the sonographic features of joints in healthy children. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2015; 67: 136-142
  • 30 Wakefield RJ, Balint PV, Szkudlarek M. et al. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 2485-2487
  • 31 Roth J, Ravagnani V, Backhaus M. OMERACT Ultrasound Group. et al. Preliminary Definitions for the Sonographic Features of Synovitis in Children. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2017; 69: 1217-1223
  • 32 Bruyn GA, Hanova P, Iagnocco A. et al. Ultrasound definition of tendon damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results of a OMERACT consensus-based ultrasound score focussing on the diagnostic reliability. Ann Rheum Dis 2014; 73: 1929-1934
  • 33 Hammer HB, Iagnocco A, Mathiessen A. et al. Global ultrasound assessment of structural lesions in osteoarthritis: a reliability study by the OMERACT ultrasonography group on scoring cartilage and osteophytes in finger joints. Ann Rheum Dis 2016; 75: 402-407
  • 34 Keen HI, Lavie F, Wakefield RJ. et al. The development of a preliminary ultrasonographic scoring system for features of hand osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67: 651-655
  • 35 Filippou G, Scirè CA, Damjanov N. et al. Definition and Reliability Assessment of Elementary Ultrasonographic Findings in Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease: A Study by the OMERACT Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease Ultrasound Subtask Force. J Rheumatol 2017; 44: 1744-1749
  • 36 Gutierrez M, Schmidt WA, Thiele RG. et al. International Consensus for Ultrasound Lesions in Gout. Results of Delphi Process and Web-Reliability Exercise. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2015; 54: 1797-1805
  • 37 Möller I, Miguel M, Bong DA. et al. The peripheral nerves: update on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018; 36 (Suppl. 114) 145-158
  • 38 Kollmann C, Jenderka KV, Moran CM. et al. EFSUMB Clinical Safety Statement for Diagnostic Ultrasound – (2019 revision). Ultraschall in Med 2020; 41: 387-389
  • 39 Ang Jr ES, Gluncic V, Duque A. et al. Prenatal exposure to ultrasound waves impacts neuronal migration in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103: 12903-12910
  • 40 Sidhu PS, Cantisani V, Dietrich CF. et al. The EFSUMB Guidelines and Recommendations for the Clinical Practice of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in Non-Hepatic Applications: Update 2017 (Short Version). Ultraschall in Med 2018; 39: 154-180
  • 41 Harris GR, Church CC, Dalecki D. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine; Health Canada; British Medical Ultrasound Society. et al. Comparison of Thermal Safety Practice Guidelines for Diagnostic Ultrasound Exposures. Ultrasound Med Biol 2016; 42: 345-357
  • 42 Nelson TR, Fowlkes JB, Abramowicz JS. et al. Ultrasound biosafety considerations for the practicing sonographer and sonologist. J Ultrasound Med 2009; 28: 139-150
  • 43 ECMUS safety aspects of elastography 2014. Online: www.efsumb.org/ecmus
  • 44 Nowicki A. Safety of ultrasonic examinations; thermal and mechanical indices. Med Ultrason 2020; 22: 203-210
  • 45 Scholten RR, Pillen S, Verrips A. et al. Quantitative ultrasonography of skeletal muscles in children: normal values. Muscle Nerve 2003; 27: 693-698
  • 46 Hioki M, Kanehira N, Koike T. et al. Age-related changes in muscle volume and intramuscular fat content in quadriceps femoris and hamstrings. Exp Gerontol 2020; 132: 110834
  • 47 Woodhouse JB, McNally EG. Ultrasound of skeletal muscle injury: an update. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2011; 32: 91-100
  • 48 Bianchi S, Martinoli C, Waser NP. et al. Central aponeurosis tears of the rectus femoris: sonographic findings. Skeletal Radiol 2002; 31: 581-586
  • 49 Koulouris G, Connell D. Hamstring muscle complex: an imaging review. Radiographics 2005; 25: 571-586
  • 50 Peetrons P. Ultrasound of muscles. Eur Radiol 2002; 12: 35-43
  • 51 Campbell SE, Adler R, Sofka CM. Ultrasound of muscle abnormalities. Ultrasound Q 2005; 21: 87-94
  • 52 Beggs I. Sonography of Muscle Hernias. Am J Roentgenol 2003; 180: 395-399
  • 53 Carra BJ, Bui-Mansfield LT, OʼBrien SD. et al. Sonography of musculoskeletal soft-tissue masses: techniques, pearls, and pitfalls. Am J Roentgenol 2014; 202: 1281-1290
  • 54 Tranquart F, Grenier N, Eder V. et al. Clinical use of ultrasound tissue harmonic imaging. Ultrasound Med Biol 1999; 25: 889-894
  • 55 Klauser AS, Peetrons P. Developments in musculoskeletal ultrasound and clinical applications. Skeletal Radiol 2010; 39: 1061-1071
  • 56 Suspected cancer: recognition and referral. NICE Guidance NG12 June 2015, Section 1.11. Online (Accessed 25 Jan 2016): http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng12
  • 57 Dangoor A, Seddon B, Gerrand C. et al. UK guidelines for the management of soft tissue sarcomas. Clin Sarcoma Res 2016; 6: 20
  • 58 Arts IMP, Pillen S, Schelhaas HJ. et al. Normal values for quantitative muscle ultrasonography in adults. Muscle Nerve 2010; 41: 32-41
  • 59 English C, Fisher L, Thoirs K. Reliability of real-time ultrasound for measuring skeletal muscle size in human limbs in vivo: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil 2012; 26: 934-944
  • 60 Nijholt W, Scafoglieri A, Jager-Wittenaar H. et al. The reliability and validity of ultrasound to quantify muscles in older adults: a systematic review. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2017; 8: 702-712
  • 61 Ticinesi A, Meschi T, Narici MV. et al. Muscle Ultrasound and Sarcopenia in Older Individuals: A Clinical Perspective. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2017; 18: 290-300
  • 62 Albano D, Messina C, Vitale J. et al. Imaging of sarcopenia: old evidence and new insights. Eur Radiol 2020; 30: 2199-2208
  • 63 Berger J, Bunout D, Barrera G. et al. Rectus femoris (RF) ultrasound for the assessment of muscle mass in older people. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2015; 61: 33-38
  • 64 Sipilä S, Suominen H. Muscle ultrasonography and computed tomography in elderly trained and untrained women. Muscle Nerve 1993; 16: 294-300
  • 65 Koppenhaver SL, Hebert JJ, Parent EC. et al. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging is a valid measure of trunk muscle size and activation during most isometric sub-maximal contractions: a systematic review. Aust J Physiother 2009; 55: 153-169
  • 66 Pretorius A, Keating JL. Validity of real time ultrasound for measuring skeletal muscle size. Phys Ther Rev 2008; 13: 415-426
  • 67 MacGillivray TJ, Ross E, Simpson HA. et al. 3D freehand ultrasound for in vivo determination of human skeletal muscle volume. Ultrasound Med Biol 2009; 35: 928-935
  • 68 Reeves ND, Maganaris CN, Narici MV. Ultrasonographic assessment of human skeletal muscle size. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004; 91: 116-118
  • 69 Sconfienza LM. Sarcopenia: ultrasound today, smartphones tomorrow?. Eur Radiol 2019; 29: 1-2
  • 70 Galindo Martín CA, Monares Zepeda E, Lescas Méndez OA. Bedside Ultrasound Measurement of Rectus Femoris: A Tutorial for the Nutrition Support Clinician. J Nutr Metab 2017; 2017: 2767232
  • 71 Ticinesi A, Narici MV, Lauretani F. et al. Assessing sarcopenia with vastus lateralis muscle ultrasound: an operative protocol. Aging Clin Exp Res 2018; 30: 1437-1443
  • 72 Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Bahat G, Bauer J. et al. Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age Ageing 2019; 48: 16-31
  • 73 Reimers CD, Fleckenstein JL, Witt TN. et al. Muscular ultrasound in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies of adults. J Neurol Sci 1993; 116: 82-92
  • 74 Gonzalez NL, Hobson-Webb LD. Neuromuscular ultrasound in clinical practice: A review. Clin Neurophysiol Pract 2019; 4: 148-163
  • 75 Cook JL, Purdam CR. Is tendon pathology a continuum? A pathology model to explain the clinical presentation of load-induced tendinopathy. Br J Sports Med 2009; 43: 409-416
  • 76 Cook JL, Rio E, Purdam CR. et al. Revisiting the continuum model of tendon pathology: what is its merit in clinical practice and research?. Br J Sports Med 2016; 50: 1187-1191
  • 77 Fu SC, Rolf C, Cheuk YC. et al. Deciphering the pathogenesis of tendinopathy: a three-stages process. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol 2010; 2: 30
  • 78 Matthews W, Ellis R, Furness JW. et al. Staging achilles tendinopathy using ultrasound imaging: the development and investigation of a new ultrasound imaging criteria based on the continuum model of tendon pathology. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2020; 6: e000699
  • 79 Khan KM, Forster BB, Robinson J. et al. Are ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging of value in assessment of Achilles tendon disorders? A two year prospective study. Br J Sports Med 2003; 37: 149-153
  • 80 Westacott DJ, Minns JI, Foguet P. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in gluteal tendon tears--a systematic review. Hip Int 2011; 21: 637-645
  • 81 Mc Auliffe S, Mc Creesh K, Purtill H. et al. A systematic review of the reliability of diagnostic ultrasound imaging in measuring tendon size: Is the error clinically acceptable?. Phys Ther Sport 2017; 26: 52-63
  • 82 Docking SI, Ooi CC, Connell D. Tendinopathy: Is Imaging Telling Us the Entire Story?. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015; 45: 842-852
  • 83 Gisslen K, Alfredson H. Neovascularisation and pain in jumperʼs knee: a prospective clinical and sonographic study in elite junior volleyball players. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39: 423-428
  • 84 Boesen MI, Koenig MJ, Torp-Pedersen S. et al. Tendinopathy and Doppler activity: the vascular response of the Achilles tendon to exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2006; 16: 463-469
  • 85 Adler RS, Fealy S, Rudzki JR. et al. Rotator cuff in asymptomatic volunteers: contrast-enhanced US depiction of intratendinous and peritendinous vascularity. Radiology 2008; 248: 954-961
  • 86 Albano D, Coppola A, Gitto S. et al. Imaging of calcific tendinopathy around the shoulder: usual and unusual presentations and common pitfalls. Radiol Med 2020; DOI: 10.1007/s11547-020-01300-0.
  • 87 Chianca V, Albano D, Messina C. et al. Rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy: from diagnosis to treatment. Acta Biomed 2018; 89: 186-196
  • 88 Uhthoff HK, Sarkar K. Calcifying tendinitis. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1989; 3: 567-581
  • 89 De Zordo T, Ahmad N, Ødegaard F. et al. US-guided therapy of calcific tendinopathy: clinical and radiological outcome assessment in shoulder and non-shoulder tendons. Ultraschall in Med 2011; 32 (Suppl. 01) S117-S123
  • 90 Albano D, Vicentin I, Messina C. et al. Post-surgical Achilles calcific tendinopathy treated with ultrasound-guided percutaneous irrigation. Skeletal Radiol 2020; 49: 1475-1480
  • 91 Sconfienza LM, Viganò S, Martini C. et al. Double-needle ultrasound-guided percutaneous treatment of rotator cuff calcific tendinitis: tips & tricks. Skeletal Radiol 2013; 42: 19-24
  • 92 Roy JS, Braen C, Leblond J. et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography, MRI and MR arthrography in the characterisation of rotator cuff disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2015; 49: 1316-1328
  • 93 de la Fuente J, Blasi M, Martinez S. et al. Ultrasound classification of traumatic distal biceps brachii tendon injuries. Skeletal Radiol 2018; 47: 519-532
  • 94 Arnoldner MA, Gruber M, Syre S. et al. Imaging of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction – Comparison of high-resolution ultrasound and 3T MRI. Eur J Radiol 2015; 84: 1777-1781
  • 95 Fischer CA, Weber MA, Neubecker C. et al. Ultrasound vs. MRI in the assessment of rotator cuff structure prior to shoulder arthroplasty. J Orthop 2015; 12: 23-30
  • 96 Lobo Lda G, Fessell DP, Miller BS. et al. The role of sonography in differentiating full versus partial distal biceps tendon tears: correlation with surgical findings. Am J Roentgenol 2013; 200: 158-162
  • 97 Foley R, Fessell D, Yablon C. et al. Sonography of traumatic quadriceps tendon tears with surgical correlation. J Ultrasound Med 2015; 34: 805-810
  • 98 Ammitzboll-Danielsen M, Ostergaard M, Naredo E. et al. Validity and sensitivity to change of the semi-quantitative OMERACT ultrasound scoring system for tenosynovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2016; 55: 2156-2166
  • 99 Danielsen MA. Ultrasonography for diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of tenosynovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Dan Med J 2018; 65: B5474
  • 100 Bruyn GA, Moller I, Garrido J. et al. Reliability testing of tendon disease using two different scanning methods in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2012; 51: 1655-1661
  • 101 Alcalde M, DʼAgostino MA, Bruyn GA. et al. A systematic literature review of US definitions, scoring systems and validity according to the OMERACT filter for tendon lesion in RA and other inflammatory joint diseases. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2012; 51: 1246-1260
  • 102 Naredo E, DʼAgostino MA, Wakefield RJ. et al. Reliability of a consensus-based ultrasound score for tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2013; 72: 1328-1334
  • 103 Matthews W, Ellis R, Furness J. et al. Classification of tendon matrix change using ultrasound imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Med Biol 2018; 44: 2059-2080
  • 104 Sǎftoiu A, Gilja OH, Sidhu PS. et al. The EFSUMB Guidelines and Recommendations for the Clinical Practice of Elastography in Non-Hepatic Applications: Update 2018. Ultraschall in Med 2019; 40: 425-453
  • 105 Cook JL, Feller JA, Bonar SF. et al. Abnormal tenocyte morphology is more prevalent than collagen disruption in asymptomatic athletesʼ patellar tendons. J Orthop Res 2004; 22: 334-338
  • 106 Malliaras P, Purdam C, Maffulli N. et al. Temporal sequence of greyscale ultrasound changes and their relationship with neovascularity and pain in the patellar tendon. Br J Sports Med 2010; 44: 944-947
  • 107 Farin PU, Jaroma H. Sonographic findings of rotator cuff calcifications. J Ultrasound Med 1995; 14: 7-14
  • 108 Sconfienza LM, Bandirali M, Serafini G. et al. Rotator cuff calcific tendinitis: does warm saline solution improve the short-term outcome of double-needle US-guided treatment?. Radiology 2012; 262: 560-566
  • 109 Orlandi D, Mauri G, Lacelli F. et al. Rotator Cuff Calcific Tendinopathy: Randomized Comparison of US-guided Percutaneous Treatments by Using One or Two Needles. Radiology 2017; 285: 518-527
  • 110 Balint PV, Kane D, Wilson H. et al. Ultrasonography of entheseal insertions in the lower limb in spondyloarthropathy. Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61: 905-910
  • 111 Baraliakos X, Kiltz U, Appel H. et al. Chronic but not inflammatory changes at the Achillesʼ tendon differentiate patients with peripheral spondyloarthritis from other diagnoses – Results from a prospective clinical trial. RMD Open 2017; 3: e000541
  • 112 Kamel M, Eid H, Mansour R. Ultrasound detection of heel enthesitis: A comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 774-778
  • 113 Ruta S, Gutierrez M, Pena C. et al. Prevalence of Subclinical Enthesopathy in Patients With Spondyloarthropathy An Ultrasound Study. J Clin Rheumatol 2011; 17: 18-22
  • 114 Wiell C, Szkudlarek M, Hasselquist M. et al. Power Doppler ultrasonography of painful Achilles tendons and entheses in patients with and without spondyloarthropathy-a comparison with clinical examination and contrast-enhanced MRI. Clin Rheumatol 2013; 32: 301-308
  • 115 Freeston JE, Coates LC, Helliwell PS. et al. Is there subclinical enthesitis in early psoriatic arthritis? A clinical comparison with power doppler ultrasound. Arthritis Care Res 2012; 64: 1617-1621
  • 116 Macchioni P, Salvarani C, Possemato N. et al. Ultrasonographic and Clinical Assessment of Peripheral Enthesitis in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis, Psoriasis, and Fibromyalgia Syndrome: The ULISSE Study. J Rheumatol 2019; 46: 904-911
  • 117 Michelsen B, Diamantopoulos AP, Hammer HB. et al. Ultrasonographic evaluation in psoriatic arthritis is of major importance in evaluating disease activity. Ann Rheum Dis 2016; 75: 2108-2113
  • 118 Delle Sedie A, Riente L, Filippucci E. et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist XXVI. Sonographic assessment of the knee in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2010; 28: 147-152
  • 119 Iagnocco A, Spadaro A, Marchesoni A. et al. Power Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of enthesitis in psoriatic arthritis. A multi-center study. Joint Bone Spine 2012; 79: 323-334
  • 120 Balint PV, Terslev L, Aegerter P. et al. Reliability of a consensus-based ultrasound definition and scoring for enthesitis in spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis: an OMERACT US initiative. Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 77: 1730-1735
  • 121 DʼAgostino MA, Said-Nahal R, Hacquard-Bouder C. et al. Assessment of peripheral enthesitis in the spondylarthropathies by ultrasonography combined with power Doppler – A cross-sectional study. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 523-533
  • 122 DʼAgostino MA, Aegerter P, Bechara K. et al. How to diagnose spondyloarthritis early? Accuracy of peripheral enthesitis detection by power Doppler ultrasonography. Ann Rheum Dis 2011; 70: 1433-1440
  • 123 Falcao S, Castillo-Gallego C, Peiteado D. et al. Can we use enthesis ultrasound as an outcome measure of disease activity in spondyloarthritis? A study at the Achilles level. Rheumatology 2015; 54: 1557-1562
  • 124 Hu Z, Xu M, Wang Q. et al. Colour Doppler ultrasonography can be used to detect the changes of sacroiliitis and peripheral enthesitis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis during adalimumab treatment. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2015; 33: 844-850
  • 125 Wink F, Bruyn GA, Maas F. et al. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Entheses in Daily Clinical Practice during Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Blocking Therapy in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis. J Rheumatol 2017; 44: 587-593
  • 126 Hartung W, Nigg A, Strunk J. et al. Clinical assessment and ultrasonography in the follow-up of enthesitis in patients with spondyloarthritis: a multicenter ultrasound study in daily clinical practice. Open Access Rheumatol 2018; 10: 161-169
  • 127 Ozsoy Unubol T, Yagci I. Is ultrasonographic enthesitis evaluation helpful for diagnosis of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis?. Rheumatol Int 2018; 38: 2053-2061
  • 128 Perrotta FM, Astorri D, Zappia M. et al. An ultrasonographic study of enthesis in early psoriatic arthritis patients naive to traditional and biologic DMARDs treatment. Rheumatol Int 2016; 36: 1579-1583
  • 129 Poulain C, DʼAgostino MA, Thibault S. et al. Can power Doppler ultrasound of the entheses help in classifying recent axial spondyloarthritis? Data from the DESIR cohort. RMD Open 2018; 4: e000686
  • 130 Sakellariou G, Iagnocco A, Delle Sedie A. et al. Ultrasonographic evaluation of entheses in patients with spondyloarthritis: a systematic literature review. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2014; 32: 969-978
  • 131 Baccouche K, Mani L, Elamri N. et al. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in spondyloarthritis patients. Egypt Rheumatol 2018; 40: 249-253
  • 132 Ezzat Y, Gaber W, EL-Rahman SFA. et al. Ultrasonographic evaluation of lover limb enthesis in patients with early spondyloarthropathies. Egypt Rheumatol 2013; 35: 29-35
  • 133 Spadaro A, Iagnocco A, Perrotta FM. et al. Clinical and ultrasonography assessment of peripheral enthesitis in ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2011; 50: 2080-2086
  • 134 Moshrif A, Mosallam A, Mohamed EE. et al. Subclinical enthesopathy in patients with psoriasis and its association with other disease parameters: a power Doppler ultrasonographic study. Eur J Rheumatol 2017; 4: 24-28
  • 135 Marchesoni A, De Lucia O, Rotunno L. et al. Entheseal Power Doppler Ultrasonography: A Comparison of Psoriatic Arthritis and Fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol Suppl 2012; 39: 29-31
  • 136 Hamdy M, Omar G, Elshereef RR. et al. Early detection of spondyloarthropathy in patients with psoriasis by using the ultrasonography and magnetic resonance image. Eur J Rheumatol 2015; 2: 10-15
  • 137 Alcalde M, Acebes JC, Cruz M. et al. A Sonographic Enthesitic Index of lower limbs is a valuable tool in the assessment of ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66: 1015-1019
  • 138 de Miguel E, Muñoz-Fernández S, Castillo C. et al. Diagnostic accuracy of enthesis ultrasound in the diagnosis of early spondyloarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2011; 70: 434-439
  • 139 Milutinovic S, Radunovic G, Veljkovic K. et al. Construct validity and sensitivity to change of Belgrade Ultrasound Enthesitis Score in patients with spondyloarthritis: a pilot study. Rheumatol Int 2018; 38: 383-391
  • 140 Ruta S, Acosta Felquer ML, Rosa J. et al. Responsiveness to therapy change of a global ultrasound assessment in spondyloarthritis patients. Clin Rheumatol 2015; 34: 125-132
  • 141 Aydin SZ, Karadag O, Filippucci E. et al. Monitoring Achilles enthesitis in ankylosing spondylitis during TNF-alpha antagonist therapy: an ultrasound study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2010; 49: 578-582
  • 142 Naredo E, Batlle-Gualda E, García-Vivar ML. et al. Power Doppler ultrasonography assessment of entheses in spondyloarthropathies: response to therapy of entheseal abnormalities. J Rheumatol 2010; 37: 2110-2117
  • 143 Litinsky I, Balbir-Gurman A, Wollman J. et al. Ultrasound assessment of enthesis thickening in psoriatic arthritis patients treated with adalimumab compared to methotrexate. Clin Rheumatol 2016; 35: 363-370
  • 144 Vahidfar S, Sunar I, Ataman S. et al. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Achilles tendon: Is there any difference between ankylosing spondylitis, non-radiographic axial spondyloarthropathy and controls?. Int J Rheum Dis 2020; 23: 511-519
  • 145 Falsetti P, Frediani B, Fioravanti A. et al. Sonographic study of calcaneal entheses in erosive osteoarthritis, nodal osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 2003; 32: 229-234
  • 146 Frediani B, Falsetti P, Storri L. et al. Ultrasound and clinical evaluation of quadricipital tendon enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 2002; 21: 294-298
  • 147 Groves C, Chandramohan M, Chew NS. et al. Clinical Examination, Ultrasound and MRI Imaging of The Painful Elbow in Psoriatic Arthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Which is Better, Ultrasound or MR, for Imaging Enthesitis?. Rheumatol Ther 2017; 4: 71-84
  • 148 Oguz ID, Gul U, Koparal SS. et al. Investigation of Enthesopathy with Ultrasonography and Comparison with Skin Findings in Asymptomatic Psoriatic Patients. Dermatology 2016; 232: 312-318
  • 149 Tinazzi I, McGonagle D, Zabotti A. et al. Comprehensive evaluation of finger flexor tendon entheseal soft tissue and bone changes by ultrasound can differentiate psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018; 36: 785-790
  • 150 Tom S, Zhong Y, Cook R. et al. Development of a Preliminary Ultrasonographic Enthesitis Score in Psoriatic Arthritis – GRAPPA Ultrasound Working Group. J Rheumatol 2019; 46: 384-390
  • 151 Ibrahim G, Groves C, Chandramohan M. et al. Clinical and ultrasound examination of the leeds enthesitis index in psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. ISRN Rheumatol 2011; 2011: 731917
  • 152 Fournie B, Margarit-Coll N, de Ribes TLC. et al. Extrasynovial ultrasound abnormalities in the psoriatic finger. Prospective comparative power-doppler study versus rheumatoid arthritis. Joint Bone Spine 2006; 73: 527-531
  • 153 Harman H, Suleyman E. Features of the Achilles tendon, paratenon, and enthesis in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. A clinical and ultrasonographic study. Z Rheumatol 2018; 77: 511-521
  • 154 Ivanoski S, Nikodinovska VV. Sonographic assessment of the anatomy and common pathologies of clinically important bursae. J Ultrason 2019; 19: 212-221
  • 155 Ruangchaijatuporn T, Gaetke-Udager K, Jacobson JA. et al. Ultrasound evaluation of bursae: anatomy and pathological appearances. Skeletal Radiol 2017; 46: 445-462
  • 156 Gao YY, Wu CQ, Liu WX. et al. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men. Chin Med J 2016; 129: 309-312
  • 157 Situ-LaCasse E, Grieger RW, Crabbe S. et al. Utility of point-of-care musculoskeletal ultrasound in the evaluation of emergency department musculoskeletal pathology. World J Emerg Med 2018; 9: 262-266
  • 158 Iagnocco A, Filippucci E, Sakellariou G. et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist XLIV. Ultrasound of the shoulder in healthy individuals. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2013; 31: 165-171
  • 159 Wang L, Xiang X, Tang Y. et al. Sonographic appearance of fluid in peripheral joints and bursae of healthy asymptomatic Chinese population. Quant Imaging Med Surg 2018; 8: 781-787
  • 160 Draghi F, Scudeller L, Draghi AG. et al. Prevalence of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis in shoulder pain: an ultrasonographic study. J Ultrasound 2015; 18: 151-158
  • 161 Singh H, Yuvarajan P, Maini L. et al. Evaluation of ultrasound as a tool for etiological diagnosis of painful arc syndrome. J Clin Orthop Trauma 2010; 1: 81-84
  • 162 Dasgupta B, Cimmino MA, Maradit-Kremers H. et al. 2012 provisional classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica: a European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology collaborative initiative. Ann Rheum Dis 2012; 71: 484-492
  • 163 Mackie SL, Koduri G, Hill CL. et al. Accuracy of musculoskeletal imaging for the diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica: systematic review. RMD Open 2015; 1: e000100
  • 164 Sakellariou G, Iagnocco A, Riente L. et al. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist XLIII. Ultrasonographic evaluation of shoulders and hips in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica: a systematic literature review. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2013; 31: 1-7
  • 165 Suzuki T, Yoshida R, Hidaka Y. et al. Proliferative Synovitis of the Shoulder Bursae is a Key Feature for Discriminating Elderly Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis Mimicking Polymyalgia Rheumatica From Polymyalgia Rheumatica. Clin Med Insights Arthritis Musculoskelet Disord 2017; 10: 1179544117745851
  • 166 Falsetti P, Acciai C, Volpe A. et al. Ultrasonography in early assessment of elderly patients with polymyalgic symptoms: a role in predicting diagnostic outcome?. Scand J Rheumatol 2011; 40: 57-63
  • 167 Ayano M, Arinobu Y, Tsukamoto H. Shoulder ultrasound and serum lactate dehydrogenase predict inadequate response to glucocorticoid treatment in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica. Rheumatol Int 2020; 40: 1101-1109
  • 168 Schraner AB, Major NM. MR imaging of the subcoracoid bursa. Am J Roentgenol 1999; 172: 1567-1571
  • 169 Meraj S, Bencardino JT, Steinbach L. Imaging of cysts and bursae about the shoulder. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2014; 18: 436-447
  • 170 Yap SH, Griffith JF, Lee RKL. Imaging bicipitoradial bursitis: a pictorial essay. Skeletal Radiol 2019; 48: 5-10
  • 171 Espiga X, Alentorn-Geli E, Lozano C. et al. Symptomatic bicipitoradial bursitis: a report of two cases and review of the literature. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2011; 20: e5-e9
  • 172 Kegels L, Van Oyen J, Siemons W. et al. Bicipitoradial bursitis. A case report. Acta Orthop Belg 2006; 72: 362-365
  • 173 Blackwell JR, Hay BA, Bolt AM. et al. Olecranon bursitis: a systematic overview. Shoulder Elbow 2014; 6: 182-190
  • 174 Reilly D, Kamineni S. Olecranon bursitis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2016; 25: 158-167
  • 175 Blankstein A, Ganel A, Givon U. et al. Ultrasonographic findings in patients with olecranon bursitis. Ultraschall in Med 2006; 27: 568-571
  • 176 Harris-Spinks C, Nabhan D, Khodaee M. Noniatrogenic Septic Olecranon Bursitis: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature. Curr Sports Med Rep 2016; 15: 33-37
  • 177 Falasca GF. Metabolic diseases: gout. Clin Dermatol 2006; 24: 498-508
  • 178 Özdemir G, Deveci A, Andıç K. et al. Bilateral Olecranon Tophaceous Gout Bursitis. Case Rep Med 2017; 2017: 3514796
  • 179 Patel J, Girishkumar B, Mruthyunjaya P. et al. Bilateral Olecranon Bursitis – A Rare Clinical presentation of Calcium Pyrophosphate Crystal Deposition Disease. J Orthop Case Rep 2014; 4: 3-6
  • 180 Tormenta S, Sconfienza LM, Iannessi F. et al. Prevalence study of iliopsoas bursitis in a cohort of 860 patients affected by symptomatic hip osteoarthritis. Ultrasound Med Biol 2012; 38: 1352-1356
  • 181 Douis H, Dunlop DJ, Pearson AM. et al. The role of ultrasound in the assessment of post-operative complications following hip arthroplasty. Skeletal Radiol 2012; 41: 1035-1046
  • 182 Wunderbaldinger P, Bremer C, Schellenberger E. et al. Imaging features of iliopsoas bursitis. Eur Radiol 2002; 12: 409-415
  • 183 Long SS, Surrey DE, Nazarian LN. Sonography of greater trochanteric syndrome and the rarity of primary bursitis. Am J Roentgenol 2013; 201: 1083-1086
  • 184 Ruta S, Quiroz C, Marin J. et al. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Greater Trochanter Pain Syndrome Bursitis or Tendinopathy?. J Clin Rheumatol 2015; 21: 99-101
  • 185 Ramirez J, Pomes I, Sobrino-Guijarro B. et al. Ultrasound evaluation of greater trochanter pain syndrome in patients with spondyloarthritis: Are there any specific features?. Rheumatol Int 2014; 34: 947-952
  • 186 Fearon AM, Scarvell JM, Cook JL. et al. Does Ultrasound Correlate with Surgical or Histologic Findings in Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome? A Pilot Study. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2010; 468: 1838-1844
  • 187 Draghi F, Corti R, Urciuoli L. et al. Knee bursitis: a sonographic evaluation. J Ultrasound 2015; 18: 251-257
  • 188 Uysal F, Akbal A, Gökmen F. et al. Prevalence of pes anserine bursitis in symptomatic osteoarthritis patients: an ultrasonographic prospective study. Clin Rheumatol 2015; 34: 529-533
  • 189 Handy JR. Popliteal cysts in adults: A review. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2001; 31: 108-118
  • 190 Falcao S, de Miguel E, Castillo-Gallego C. et al. Achilles enthesis ultrasound: the importance of the bursa in spondyloarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2013; 31: 422-427
  • 191 Hooper L, Bowen CJ, Gates L. et al. Comparative Distribution of Ultrasound-Detectable Forefoot Bursae in Patients with Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 2014; 66: 869-877
  • 192 Bowen CJ, Hooper L, Culliford D. et al. Assessment of the Natural History of Forefoot Bursae Using Ultrasonography in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Twelve-Month Investigation. Arthritis Care Res 2010; 62: 1756-1762
  • 193 Iagnocco A, Coari G, Palombi G. et al. Sonography in the study of metatarsalgia. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 1338-1340
  • 194 Hetta WM, Niazi G. Concordance of US and MRI for diagnosis of ligamentous and tendinous injuries around the ankle. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med 2018; 49: 131-137
  • 195 Boutry N, Lapegue F, Masi L. et al. Ultrasonographic evaluation of normal extrinsic and intrinsic carpal ligaments: preliminary experience. Skeletal Radiol 2005; 34: 513-521
  • 196 Shalaby MH, Sharara SM, Abdelbary MH. High resolution ultrasonography in ankle joint pain: Where does it stand?. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med 2017; 48: 645-652
  • 197 Kemmochi M, Sasaki S, Fujisaki K. et al. A new classification of anterior talofibular ligament injuries based on ultrasonography findings. J Orthop Sci 2016; 21: 770-778
  • 198 Radwan A, Bakowski J, Dew S. et al. Effectiveness of ultrasonography in diagnosing chronic lateral ankle instability: a systematic review. Int J Sports Phys Ther 2016; 11: 164-174
  • 199 Lee SH, Yun SJ. The feasibility of point-of-care ankle ultrasound examination in patients with recurrent ankle sprain and chronic ankle instability: Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Injury 2017; 48: 2323-2328
  • 200 Elkaïm M, Thès A, Lopes R. et al. Agreement between arthroscopic and imaging study findings in chronic anterior talo-fibular ligament injuries. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2018; 104: S213-S218
  • 201 Cheng Y, Cai Y, Wang Y. Value of ultrasonography for detecting chronic injury of the lateral ligaments of the ankle joint compared with ultrasonography findings. Br J Radiol 2014; 87: 20130406
  • 202 Cao S, Wang C, Ma X. et al. Imaging diagnosis for chronic lateral ankle ligament injury: a systemic review with meta-analysis. J Orthop Surg Res 2018; 13: 122
  • 203 Rosa I, Rodeia J, Fernandes PX. et al. Ultrasonographic Assessment of Deltoid Ligament Integrity in Ankle Fractures. Foot Ankle Int 2020; 41: 147-153
  • 204 Sconfienza LM, Orlandi D, Lacelli F. et al. Dynamic high-resolution US of ankle and midfoot ligaments: normal anatomic structure and imaging technique. Radiographics 2015; 35: 164-178
  • 205 Marshall JJ, Graves NC, Rettedal DD. et al. Ultrasound assessment of bilateral symmetry in dorsal Lisfranc ligament. J Foot Ankle Surg 2013; 52: 319-323
  • 206 Kaicker J, Zajac M, Shergill R. et al. Ultrasound appearance of the normal Lisfranc ligament. Emerg Radiol 2016; 23: 609-614
  • 207 Faruch Bilfeld M, Cavaignac E, Wytrykowski K. et al. Anterolateral ligament injuries in knees with an anterior cruciate ligamenttear: Contribution of ultrasonography and MRI. Eur Radiol 2018; 28: 58-65
  • 208 Cavaignac E, Faruch M, Wytrykowski K. et al. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Anterolateral Ligament Injuries: Correlation With Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pivot-Shift Testing. Arthroscopy 2017; 33: 1384-1390
  • 209 Kandel M, Cattrysse E, De Maeseneer M. et al. Inter-rater reliability of an ultrasound protocol to evaluate the anterolateral ligament of the knee. J Ultrason 2019; 19: 181-186
  • 210 Zhang GY, Zheng L, Ding HY. et al. Evaluation of medial patellofemoral ligament tears after acute lateral patellar dislocation: comparison of high-frequency ultrasound and MR. Eur Radiol 2015; 25: 274-281
  • 211 Lack S, Anthony L, Noake J. et al. Medial and Lateral Patellofemoral Joint Retinaculum Thickness in People With Patellofemoral Pain: A Case-Control Study. J Ultrasound Med 2019; 38: 1483-1490
  • 212 Lee SH, Yun SJ. Efficiency of knee ultrasound for diagnosing anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Skeletal Radiol 2019; 48: 1599-1610
  • 213 Wang J, Wu H, Dong F. et al. The role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Sport Sci 2018; 18: 579-586
  • 214 Fenkl R, Gotzen L. Sonographic diagnosis of the injured acromioclavicular joint A standardized examination procedure. Unfallchirurg 1992; 95: 393-400
  • 215 Kock HJ, Jurgens C, Hirche H. et al. Standardized ultrasound examination for evaluation of instability of the acromioclavicular joint. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1996; 115: 136-140
  • 216 Faruch Bilfeld M, Lapegue F, Chiavassa Gandois H. et al. Ultrasound of the coracoclavicular ligaments in the acute phase of an acromioclavicular disjonction: Comparison of radiographic, ultrasound and MRI findings. Eur Radiol 2017; 27: 483-490
  • 217 Homsi C, Bordalo-Rodrigues M, da Silva JJ. et al. Ultrasound in adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: is assessment of the coracohumeral ligament a valuable diagnostic tool?. Skeletal Radiol 2006; 35: 673-678
  • 218 Wu CH, Chang KV, Su PH. et al. Dynamic ultrasonography to evaluate coracoacromial ligament displacement during motion in shoulders with supraspinatus tendon tears. J Orthop Res 2012; 30: 1430-1434
  • 219 Farrow LD, Mahoney AP, Sheppard JE. et al. Sonographic assessment of the medial ulnar collateral ligament distal ulnar attachment. J Ultrasound Med 2014; 33: 1485-1490
  • 220 Hendawi TK, Rendos NK, Warrell CS. et al. Medial elbow stability assessment after ultrasound-guided ulnar collateral ligament transection in a cadaveric model: ultrasound versus stress radiography. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019; 28: 1154-1158
  • 221 Park JY, Kim H, Lee JH. et al. Valgus stress ultrasound for medial ulnar collateral ligament injuries in athletes: is ultrasound alone enough for diagnosis?. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020; 29: 578-586
  • 222 Camerlinck M, Vanhoenacker FM, Kiekens G. Ultrasound demonstration of Struthersʼ ligament. J Clin Ultrasound 2010; 38: 499-502
  • 223 Griffith JF, Chan DP, Ho PC. et al. Sonography of the normal scapholunate ligament and scapholunate joint space. J Clin Ultrasound 2001; 29: 223-229
  • 224 Dao KD, Solomon DJ, Shin AY. et al. The efficacy of ultrasound in the evaluation of dynamic scapholunate ligamentous instability. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2004; 86: 1473-1478
  • 225 Gondim Teixeira PA, Omoumi P, Trudell DJ. et al. High-resolution ultrasound evaluation of the trapeziometacarpal joint with emphasis on the anterior oblique ligament (beak ligament). Skeletal Radiol 2011; 40: 897-904
  • 226 Mattox R, Welk AB, Battaglia PJ. et al. Sonographic diagnosis of an acute Stener lesion: a case report. J Ultrasound 2016; 19: 149-152
  • 227 Karabay N, Kayalar M, Ada S. Sonographic assessment of transverse carpal ligament after open surgical release of the carpal tunnel. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2013; 47: 73-78
  • 228 Lee SH, Yun SJ. Point-of-care wrist ultrasonography in trauma patients with ulnar-sided pain and instability. Am J Emerg Med 2018; 36: 859-864
  • 229 Türker T, Sheppard JE, Klauser AS. et al. The radial and ulnar collateral ligaments of the wrist are true ligaments. Diagn Interv Radiol 2019; 25: 473-479
  • 230 Klauser A, Bodner G, Frauscher F. et al. Finger injuries in extreme rock climbers. Assessment of high-resolution ultrasonography. Am J Sports Med 1999; 27: 733-737
  • 231 Klauser A, Frauscher F, Bodner G. et al. Finger pulley injuries in extreme rock climbers: depiction with dynamic US. Radiology 2002; 222: 755-761
  • 232 Bianchi S, Gitto S, Draghi F. Ultrasound Features of Trigger Finger: Review of the Literature. J Ultrasound Med 2019; 38: 3141-3154
  • 233 Klauser A, Stadlbauer KH, Frauscher F. et al. Value of transducer positions in the measurement of finger flexor tendon thickness by sonography. J Ultrasound Med 2004; 23: 331-337
  • 234 Klauser A, Frauscher F, Bodner G. et al. Value of high-resolution ultrasound in the evaluation of finger injuries in extreme sport climbers. Ultraschall in Med 2000; 21: 73-78
  • 235 Martinoli C, Perez MM, Bignotti B. et al. Imaging finger joint instability with ultrasound. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2013; 17: 466-476
  • 236 Tom S, Zhong Y, Cook R. et al. Development of a Preliminary Ultrasonographic Enthesitis Score in Psoriatic Arthritis – GRAPPA Ultrasound Working Group. J Rheumatol 2019; 46: 384-390
  • 237 Bakirci S, Solmaz D, Stephenson W. et al. Entheseal Changes in Response to Age, Body Mass Index, and Physical Activity: An Ultrasound Study in Healthy People. J Rheumatol 2020; 47: 968-972
  • 238 Døhn UM, Terslev L, Szkudlarek M. et al. Detection, scoring and volume assessment of bone erosions by ultrasonography in rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with CT. Ann Rheum Dis 2013; 72: 530-534
  • 239 Hassan R, Hussain S, Bacha R. et al. Reliability of Ultrasound for the Detection of Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Med Ultrasound 2019; 27: 3-12
  • 240 Zayat AS, Ellegaard K, Conaghan PG. et al. The specificity of ultrasound-detected bone erosions for rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2015; 74: 897-903
  • 241 Grosse J, Allado E, Roux C. et al. ACPA-positive versus ACPA-negative rheumatoid arthritis: two distinct erosive disease entities on radiography and ultrasonography. Rheumatol Int 2020; 40: 615-624
  • 242 Moraux A, Gitto S, Bianchi S. Ultrasound Features of the Normal and Pathologic Periosteum. J Ultrasound Med 2019; 38: 775-784
  • 243 Hoffman DF, Adams E, Bianchi S. Ultrasonography of fractures in sports medicine. Br J Sports Med 2015; 49: 152-160
  • 244 Yousefifard M, Baikpour M, Ghelichkhani P. et al. Comparison of Ultrasonography and Radiography in Detection of Thoracic Bone Fractures; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Emerg (Tehran) 2016; 4: 55-64
  • 245 Tsou PY, Ma YK, Wang YH. et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for upper extremity fractures in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2020.04.071.
  • 246 Wright AA, Hegedus EJ, Lenchik L. et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Various Imaging Modalities for Suspected Lower Extremity Stress Fractures: A Systematic Review With Evidence-Based Recommendations for Clinical Practice. Am J Sports Med 2016; 44: 255-263
  • 247 Fischer C, Preuss EM, Tanner M. et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced sonography and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for preoperative diagnosis of infected nonunions. J Ultrasound Med 2016; 35: 933-942
  • 248 Pozza S, De Marchi A, Albertin C. et al. Technical and clinical feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound evaluation of long bone non-infected nonunion healing. Radiol Med 2018; 123: 703-709
  • 249 Silvestri E, Martinoli C, Derchi LE. et al. Echotexture of peripheral nerves: correlation between US and histologic findings and criteria to differentiate tendons. Radiology 1995; 197: 291-296
  • 250 Agarwal A, Chandra A, Jaipal U. et al. Can imaging be the new yardstick for diagnosing peripheral neuropathy? A comparison between high resolution ultrasound and MR neurography with an approach to diagnosis. Insights Imaging 2019; 10: 104
  • 251 Agarwal A, Chandra A, Jaipal U. et al. A panorama of radial nerve pathologies- an imaging diagnosis: a step ahead. Insights Imaging 2018; 9: 1021-1034
  • 252 Agarwal A, Chandra A, Jaipal U. et al. Imaging in the diagnosis of ulnar nerve pathologies-a neoteric approach. Insights Imaging 2019; 10: 37
  • 253 Brown JM, Yablon CM, Morag Y. et al. US of the Peripheral Nerves of the Upper Extremity: A Landmark Approach. Radiographics 2016; 36: 452-463
  • 254 Picasso R, Zaottini F, Pistoia F. et al. High-Resolution Ultrasound of Small Clinically Relevant Nerves Running Across the Posterior Triangle of the Neck. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2020; 24: 101-112
  • 255 Koenig RW, Pedro MT, Heinen CP. et al. High-resolution ultrasonography in evaluating peripheral nerve entrapment and trauma. Neurosurg Focus 2009; 26: E13
  • 256 Martinoli C, Bianchi S, Gandolfo N. et al. US of nerve entrapments in osteofibrous tunnels of the upper and lower limbs. Radiographics 2000; 20: S199-213
  • 257 Mallon S, Starcevic V, Rheinboldt M. et al. Sonographic evaluation of peripheral nerve pathology in the emergency setting. Emerg Radiol 2018; 25: 521-531
  • 258 Choi SJ, Ahn JH, Ryu DS. et al. Ultrasonography for nerve compression syndromes of the upper extremity. Ultrasonography 2015; 34: 275-291
  • 259 Chen YT, Williams L, Zak MJ. et al. Review of Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and a Proposed Scanning Protocol. J Ultrasound Med 2016; 35: 2311-2324
  • 260 Baute Penry V, Cartwright MS. Neuromuscular Ultrasound for Peripheral Neuropathies. Semin Neurol 2019; 39: 542-548
  • 261 Powell GM, Baffour FI, Erie AJ. et al. Sonographic evaluation of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in meralgia paresthetica. Skeletal Radiol 2020; 49: 1135-1140
  • 262 Akcar N, Ozkan S, Mehmetoglu O. et al. Value of power Doppler and gray-scale US in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: contribution of cross-sectional area just before the tunnel inlet as compared with the cross-sectional area at the tunnel. Korean J Radiol 2010; 11: 632-639
  • 263 Klauser AS, Halpern EJ, De Zordo T. et al. Carpal tunnel syndrome assessment with US: value of additional cross-sectional area measurements of the median nerve in patients versus healthy volunteers. Radiology 2009; 250: 171-177
  • 264 Klauser AS, Halpern EJ, Faschingbauer R. et al. Bifid median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome: assessment with US cross-sectional area measurement. Radiology 2011; 259: 808-815
  • 265 Gruber H, Glodny B, Peer S. The validity of ultrasonographic assessment in cubital tunnel syndrome: the value of a cubital-to-humeral nerve area ratio (CHR) combined with morphologic features. Ultrasound Med Biol 2010; 36: 376-382
  • 266 Cornelson SM, Sclocco R, Kettner NW. Ulnar nerve instability in the cubital tunnel of asymptomatic volunteers. J Ultrasound 2019; 22: 337-344
  • 267 Chang KV, Wu WT, Han DS. et al. Ulnar Nerve Cross-Sectional Area for the Diagnosis of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Ultrasonographic Measurements. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2018; 99: 743-757
  • 268 Chang KV, Mezian K, Naňka O. et al. Ultrasound Imaging for the Cutaneous Nerves of the Extremities and Relevant Entrapment Syndromes: From Anatomy to Clinical Implications. J Clin Med 2018; 7: 457
  • 269 Jakobsen RL, Fuglsang-Frederiksen A, Hellfritzsch MB. et al. A prospective study of high-resolution ultrasound in brachial plexopathies – Correlation with electrophysiological measurements. Clin Neurophysiol 2019; 130: 1144-1150
  • 270 Çelebi UO, Burulday V, Özveren MF. et al. Sonoelastographic evaluation of the sciatic nerve in patients with unilateral lumbar disc herniation. Skeletal Radiol 2019; 48: 129-136
  • 271 Bilgici A, Cokluk C, Aydın K. Ultrasound neurography in the evaluation of sciatic nerve injuries. J Phys Ther Sci 2013; 25: 1209-1211
  • 272 Chen SF, Huang CR, Tsai NW. et al. Ultrasonographic assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome of mild and moderate severity in diabetic patients by using an 8-point measurement of median nerve cross-sectional areas. BMC Med Imaging 2012; 12: 15
  • 273 Kerasnoudis A, Pitarokoili K, Behrendt V. et al. Cross-sectional area reference values for sonography of peripheral nerves and brachial plexus. Clin Neurophysiol 2013; 124: 1881-1888
  • 274 Lee RKL, Griffith JF, Ng AWH. et al. Cross-sectional area of the median nerve at the wrist: Comparison of sonographic, MRI, and cadaveric measurements. J Clin Ultrasound 2019; 47: 122-127
  • 275 Mhoon JT, Juel VC, Hobson-Webb LD. Median nerve ultrasound as a screening tool in carpal tunnel syndrome: correlation of cross-sectional area measures with electrodiagnostic abnormality. Muscle Nerve 2012; 46: 871-878
  • 276 OʼReilly MA, OʼReilly PM, Sheahan JN. et al. Neuromas as the cause of pain in the residual limbs of amputees. An ultrasound study. Clin Radiol 2016; 71: 1068.e1-6
  • 277 Chen KH, Lee KF, Hsu HC. et al. The role of high-resolution ultrasound in the diagnosis of a traumatic neuroma in an injured median nerve. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009; 88: 771-774
  • 278 Lauretti L, DʼAlessandris QG, Granata G. et al. Ultrasound evaluation in traumatic peripheral nerve lesions: from diagnosis to surgical planning and follow-up. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2015; 157: 1947-1951
  • 279 Kowalska B. Assessment of the utility of ultrasonography with high-frequency transducers in the diagnosis of posttraumatic neuropathies. J Ultrason 2015; 15: 15-28
  • 280 Hollister AM, Simoncini A, Sciuk A. et al. High frequency ultrasound evaluation of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries. Neurol Res 2012; 34: 98-103
  • 281 Suh DH, Kim DH, Park JW. et al. Sonographic and electrophysiologic findings in patients with meralgia paresthetica. Clin Neurophysiol 2013; 124: 1460-1464
  • 282 Coraci D, Pazzaglia C, Doneddu PE. et al. Post-traumatic neuroma due to closed nerve injury. Is recovery after peripheral nerve trauma related to ultrasonographic neuroma size?. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2015; 139: 314-318
  • 283 Choi SY, Park JW, Kim DH. Ultrasonographic and Surgical Findings of Acute Radial Neuropathy Following Blunt Trauma. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2016; 95: E177-E182
  • 284 Di Pasquale A, Morino S, Loreti S. et al. Peripheral nerve ultrasound changes in CIDP and correlations with nerve conduction velocity. Neurology 2015; 84: 803-809
  • 285 Fisse AL, Pitarokoili K, Trampe N. et al. Sonographic, and Electrophysiologic Longitudinal Features of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy. J Neuroimaging 2019; 29: 223-232
  • 286 Hobson-Webb LD. Neuromuscular ultrasound in polyneuropathies and motor neuron disease. Muscle Nerve 2013; 47: 790-804
  • 287 Goedee HS, Brekelmans GJ, van Asseldonk JT. et al. High resolution sonography in the evaluation of the peripheral nervous system in polyneuropathy--a review of the literature. Eur J Neurol 2013; 20: 1342-1351
  • 288 Kerasnoudis A, Pitarokoili K, Behrendt V. et al. Nerve ultrasound score in distinguishing chronic from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clin Neurophysiol 2014; 125: 635-641
  • 289 Mori A, Nodera H, Takamatsu N. et al. Sonographic evaluation of peripheral nerves in subtypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Neurol Sci 2016; 364: 154-159
  • 290 Grimm A, Décard BF, Axer H. Ultrasonography of the peripheral nervous system in the early stage of Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2014; 19: 234-241
  • 291 Grimm A, Décard BF, Schramm A. et al. Ultrasound and electrophysiologic findings in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome at disease onset and over a period of six months. Clin Neurophysiol 2016; 127: 1657-1663
  • 292 Martinoli C, Derchi LE, Bertolotto M. et al. US and MR imaging of peripheral nerves in leprosy. Skeletal Radiol 2000; 29: 142-150
  • 293 Martinoli C, Schenone A, Bianchi S. et al. Sonography of the median nerve in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Am J Roentgenol 2002; 178: 1553-1556
  • 294 Padua L, Coraci D, Lucchetta M. et al. Different nerve ultrasound patterns in charcot-marie-tooth types and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. Muscle Nerve 2018; 57: E18-E23
  • 295 Yiu EM, Brockley CR, Lee KJ. et al. Peripheral nerve ultrasound in pediatric Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Neurology 2015; 84: 569-574
  • 296 Zanette G, Fabrizi GM, Taioli F. et al. Nerve ultrasound findings differentiate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) 1A from other demyelinating CMTs. Clin Neurophysiol 2018; 129: 2259-2267
  • 297 Bayrak AO, Bayrak IK, Battaloglu E. et al. Ultrasonographic findings in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. Neurol Res 2015; 37: 106-111
  • 298 Beekman R, Visser LH. Sonographic detection of diffuse peripheral nerve enlargement in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies. J Clin Ultrasound 2002; 30: 433-436
  • 299 Gruber H, Glodny B, Bendix N. et al. High-resolution ultrasound of peripheral neurogenic tumors. Eur Radiol 2007; 17: 2880-2888
  • 300 Lee SJ, Yoon ST. Ultrasonographic and Clinical Characteristics of Schwannoma of the Hand. Clin Orthop Surg 2017; 9: 91-95
  • 301 Tagliafico AS, Isaac A, Bignotti B. et al. Nerve Tumors: What the MSK Radiologist Should Know. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2019; 23: 76-84
  • 302 Zhang H, Li Y, Shao J. et al. High-Resolution Ultrasound of Schwannomas of the Limbs: Analysis of 72 Cases. Ultrasound Med Biol 2016; 42: 2538-2544
  • 303 Yang F, Chen XX, Wu HL. et al. Sonographic Features and Diagnosis of Peripheral Schwannomas. J Clin Ultrasound 2017; 45: 127-133
  • 304 Ryu JA, Lee SH, Cha EY. et al. Sonographic Differentiation Between Schwannomas and Neurofibromas in the Musculoskeletal System. J Ultrasound Med 2015; 34: 2253-2260
  • 305 Murphey MD, Smith WS, Smith SE. et al. From the archives of the AFIP. Imaging of musculoskeletal neurogenic tumors: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 1999; 19: 1253-1280
  • 306 Pedro MT, Antoniadis G, Scheuerle A. et al. Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound of peripheral nerve tumors and tumorlike lesions. Neurosurg Focus 2015; 39: E5
  • 307 Chiou HJ, Chou YH, Chiou SY. et al. Peripheral nerve lesions: role of high-resolution US. Radiographics 2003; 23: e15
  • 308 Wortsman X, Alfageme F, Roustan G. et al. Guidelines for Performing Dermatologic Ultrasound Examinations by the DERMUS Group. J Ultrasound Med 2016; 35: 577-580
  • 309 Alfageme F, Wortsman X, Catalano O. et al. European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) Position Statement on Dermatologic Ultrasound. Ultraschall in Med 2020; DOI: 10.1055/a-1161-8872.
  • 310 Crisan D, Lupsor M, Boca A. et al. Ultrasonographic assessment of skin structure according to age. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2012; 78: 519
  • 311 Nedelec B, Forget NJ, Hurtubise T. et al. Skin characteristics: normative data for elasticity, erythema, melanin, and thickness at 16 different anatomical locations. Skin Res Technol 2016; 22: 263-275
  • 312 Sandby-Moller J, Wulf HC. Ultrasonographic subepidermal low-echogenic band, dependence of age and body site. Skin Res Technol 2004; 10: 57-63
  • 313 Ambroziak M, Pietruski P, Noszczyk B. et al. Ultrasonographic elastography in the evaluation of normal and pathological skin – a review. Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2019; 36: 667-672
  • 314 Yang Y, Wang L, Yan F. et al. Determination of Normal Skin Elasticity by Using Real-time Shear Wave Elastography. J Ultrasound Med 2018; 37: 2507-2516
  • 315 Wortsman X, Carreño L, Ferreira-Wortsman C. et al. Ultrasound Characteristics of the Hair Follicles and Tracts, Sebaceous Glands, Montgomery Glands, Apocrine Glands, and Arrector Pili Muscles. J Ultrasound Med 2019; 38: 1995-2004
  • 316 Avetikov DS, Bukhanchenko OP, Skikevich MG. et al. Features of ultrasound diagnostics of postoperative hypertrophic and keloid scars. New Armen Med J 2018; 12: 43-48
  • 317 Agabalyan NA, Su S, Sinha S. et al. Comparison between high-frequency ultrasonography and histological assessment reveals weak correlation for measurements of scar tissue thickness. Burns 2017; 43: 531-538
  • 318 Dyson M, Moodley S, Verjee L. et al. Wound healing assessment using 20 MHz ultrasound and photography. Skin Res Technol 2003; 9: 116-121
  • 319 Caro RDC, Solivetti FM, Bianchi L. Power Doppler ultrasound assessment of vascularization in hidradenitis suppurativa lesions. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018; 32: 1360-1367
  • 320 Lacarrubba F, Dini V, Napolitano M. et al. Ultrasonography in the pathway to an optimal standard of care of hidradenitis suppurativa: the Italian Ultrasound Working Group experience. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2019; 33: 10-14
  • 321 Loo CH, Tan WC, Tang JJ. et al. The clinical, biochemical, and ultrasonographic characteristics of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa in Northern Peninsular Malaysia: a multicenter study. Int J Dermatol 2018; 57: 1454-1463
  • 322 Martorell A, Wortsman X, Alfageme F. et al. Ultrasound Evaluation as a Complementary Test in Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Proposal of a Standarized Report. Dermatol Surg 2017; 43: 1065-1073
  • 323 Martorell A, Roldan FA, Rull EV. et al. Ultrasound as a diagnostic and management tool in hidradenitis suppurativa patients: a multicentre study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2019; 33: 2137-2142
  • 324 Nazzaro G, Passoni E, Calzari P. et al. Color Doppler as a tool for correlating vascularization and pain in hidradenitis suppurativa lesions. Skin Res Technol 2019; 25: 830-834
  • 325 Wortsman X, Moreno C, Soto R. et al. Ultrasound In-Depth Characterization and Staging of Hidradenitis Suppurativa. Dermatol Surg 2013; 39: 1835-1842
  • 326 Wortsman X, Castro A, Figueroa A. Color Doppler ultrasound assessment of morphology and types of fistulous tracts in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). J Am Acad Dermatol 2016; 75: 760-767
  • 327 Wortsman X, Rodriguez C, Lobos C. et al. Ultrasound Diagnosis and Staging in Pediatric Hidradenitis Suppurativa. Pediatr Dermatol 2016; 33: e260-e264
  • 328 Wortsman X, Calderon P, Castro A. Seventy-MHz Ultrasound Detection of Early Signs Linked to the Severity, Patterns of Keratin Fragmentation, and Mechanisms of Generation of Collections and Tunnels in Hidradenitis Suppurativa. J Ultrasound Med 2020; 39: 845-857
  • 329 Alsaawi A, Alrajhi K, Alshehri A. et al. Ultrasonography for the diagnosis of patients with clinically suspected skin and soft tissue infections: a systematic review of the literature. Eur J Emerg Med 2017; 24: 162-169
  • 330 Barbic D, Chenkin J, Cho DD. et al. In patients presenting to the emergency department with skin and soft tissue infections what is the diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care ultrasonography for the diagnosis of abscess compared to the current standard of care? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bmj Open 2017; 7: e013688
  • 331 Subramaniam S, Bober J, Chao J. et al. Point-of-care Ultrasound for Diagnosis of Abscess in Skin and Soft Tissue Infections. Acad Emerg Med 2016; 23: 1298-1306
  • 332 Berger T, Garrido F, Green J. et al. Bedside ultrasound performed by novices for the detection of abscess in ED patients with soft tissue infections. Am J Emerg Med 2012; 30: 1569-1573
  • 333 Gaspari R, Blehar D, Mendoza M. et al. Use of Ultrasound Elastography for Skin and Subcutaneous Abscesses. J Ultrasound Med 2009; 28: 855-860
  • 334 Mower WR, Crisp JG, Krishnadasan A. et al. Effect of Initial Bedside Ultrasonography on Emergency Department Skin and Soft Tissue Infection Management. Ann Emerg Med 2019; 74: 372-380
  • 335 Sulli A, Ruaro B, Smith V. et al. Subclinical dermal involvement is detectable by high frequency ultrasound even in patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Res Ther 2017; 19: 61
  • 336 Hesselstrand R, Carlestam J, Wildt M. et al. High frequency ultrasound of skin involvement in systemic sclerosis – a follow-up study. Arthritis Res Ther 2015; 17: 329
  • 337 Hesselstrand R, Scheja A, Wildt M. et al. High-frequency ultrasound of skin involvement in systemic sclerosis reflects oedema, extension and severity in early disease. Rheumatology 2008; 47: 84-87
  • 338 Kaloudi O, Bandinelli F, Filippucci E. et al. High frequency ultrasound measurement of digital dermal thickness in systemic sclerosis. Ann Rheum Dis 2010; 69: 1140-1143
  • 339 Santiago T, Santiago M, Coutinho M. et al. How much of skin improvement over time in systemic sclerosis is due to normal ageing? A prospective study with shear-wave elastography. Arthritis Res Ther 2020; 22: 50
  • 340 Akesson A, Hesselstrand R, Scheja A. et al. Longitudinal development of skin involvement and reliability of high frequency ultrasound in systemic sclerosis. Ann Rheum Dis 2004; 63: 791-796
  • 341 Li H, Furst DE, Jin H. et al. High-frequency ultrasound of the skin in systemic sclerosis: an exploratory study to examine correlation with disease activity and to define the minimally detectable difference. Arthritis Res Ther 2018; 20: 181
  • 342 Santiago T, Santiago M, Ruaro B. et al. Ultrasonography for the Assessment of Skin in Systemic Sclerosis: A Systematic Review. Arthritis Care Rese 2019; 71: 563-574
  • 343 Hou Y, Zhu QL, Liu H. et al. A Preliminary Study of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Quantification for the Assessment of Skin in Diffuse Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis. J Rheumatol 2015; 42: 449-455
  • 344 Sobolewski P, Maslinska M, Zakrzewski J. et al. Applicability of shear wave elastography for the evaluation of skin strain in systemic sclerosis. Rheumatol Int 2020; 40: 737-745
  • 345 Wortsman X. Why, how, and when to use color Doppler ultrasound for improving precision in the diagnosis, assessment of severity and activity in morphea. J Scleroderma Relat Disord 2019; 4: 28-34
  • 346 Arisi M, Lorenzi L, Incardona P. et al. Clinical, histological and high-frequency ultrasonographic evaluation (50 MHz) of morphoea treated with ultraviolet A1 phototherapy. Clin Exp Dermatol 2019; 44: 270-276
  • 347 Chen HC, Kadono T, Mimura Y. et al. High-frequency ultrasound as a useful device in the preliminary differentiation of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus from morphea. J Dermatol 2004; 31: 556-559
  • 348 Wang L, Yan F, Yang Y. et al. Quantitative assessment of skin stiffness in localized scleroderma using ultrasound shear-wave elastography. Ultrasound Med Biol 2017; 43: 1339-1347
  • 349 Marina ME, Botar Jid C, Roman II. et al. Ultrasonography in psoriatic disease. Med Ultrason 2015; 17: 377-382
  • 350 Micali G, Lacarrubba F, Santagati C. et al. Clinical, ultrasound, and videodermatoscopy monitoring of psoriatic patients following biological treatment. Skin Res Technol 2016; 22: 341-348
  • 351 Lacarrubba F, Pellacani G, Gurgone S. et al. Advances in non-invasive techniques as aids to the diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic response in plaque psoriasis: a review. Int J Dermatol 2015; 54: 626-634
  • 352 Cucos M, Crisan M, Lenghel M. et al. Conventional ultrasonography and sonoelastography in the assessment of plaque psoriasis under topical corticosteroid treatment – work in progress. Med Ultrason 2014; 16: 107-113
  • 353 Gutierrez M, De Angelis R, Bernardini ML. et al. Clinical, power Doppler sonography and histological assessment of the psoriatic plaque: short-term monitoring in patients treated with etanercept. Br J Dermatol 2011; 164: 33-37
  • 354 Dattola A, Altobelli S, Marsico S. et al. Hypodermal Adipose Tissue Sonoelastography for Monitoring Treatment Response in Patients with Plaque Psoriasis. Photomed Laser Surg 2017; 35: 484-491
  • 355 Hayashi A, Giacalone G, Yamamoto T. et al. Ultra High-frequency Ultrasonographic Imaging with 70 MHz Scanner for Visualization of the Lymphatic Vessels. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2019; 7: e2086
  • 356 Polat AV, Ozturk M, Polat AK. et al. Efficacy of Ultrasound and Shear Wave Elastography for the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema. J Ultrasound Med 2020; 39: 795-803
  • 357 Naouri M, Samimi M, Atlan M. et al. High-resolution cutaneous ultrasonography to differentiate lipoedema from lymphoedema. Br J Dermatol 2010; 163: 296-301
  • 358 Iuchi T, Kobayashi M, Tsuchiya S. et al. Objective assessment of leg edema using ultrasonography with a gel pad. Plos One 2017; 12: e0182042
  • 359 Australian Cancer Database. Melanoma of the skin for Australia (ICD10 C43). Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality (ACIM) Books. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2017. Online: http://www.aihw.gov.au/acim-books
  • 360 Chaput L, Laurent E, Pare A. et al. One-step surgical removal of cutaneous melanoma with surgical margins based on preoperative ultrasound measurement of the thickness of the melanoma. Eur J Dermatol 2018; 28: 202-208
  • 361 Guitera P, Li LX, Crotty K. et al. Melanoma histological Breslow thickness predicted by 75-MHz ultrasonography. Br J Dermatol 2008; 159: 364-369
  • 362 Andrekute K, Valiukeviciene S, Raisutis R. et al. Automated Estimation of Melanocytic Skin Tumor Thickness by Ultrasonic Radiofrequency Data. J Ultrasound Med 2016; 35: 857-865
  • 363 Ribero S, Podlipnik S, Osella-Abate S. et al. Ultrasound-based follow-up does not increase survival in early-stage melanoma patients: A comparative cohort study. Eur J Cancer 2017; 85: 59-66
  • 364 Dinnes J, Ferrante di Ruffano L, Takwoingi Y. et al. Ultrasound, CT, MRI, or PET-CT for staging and re-staging of adults with cutaneous melanoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 7: CD012806
  • 365 Testori AAE, Chiellino S, van Akkooi ACJ. Adjuvant Therapy for Melanoma: Past, Current, and Future Developments. Cancers (Basel) 2020; 12: 1994
  • 366 Wang SQ, Liu J, Zhu QL. et al. High-frequency ultrasound features of basal cell carcinoma and its association with histological recurrence risk. Chin Med J 2019; 132: 2021-2026
  • 367 Dinnes J, Bamber J, Chuchu N. et al. High-frequency ultrasound for diagnosing skin cancer in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 12: CD013188
  • 368 Polanska A, Danczak-Pazdrowska A, Silny W. et al. Comparison between high-frequency ultrasonography (Dermascan C, version 3) and histopathology in atopic dermatitis. Skin Res Technol 2013; 19: 432-437
  • 369 Mandava A, Koppula V, Wortsman X. et al. The clinical value of imaging in primary cutaneous lymphomas: Role of high resolution ultrasound and PET-CT. Br J Radiol 2019; 92: 20180904
  • 370 Carrascosa R, Alfageme F, Roustan G. et al. Skin Ultrasound in Kaposi Sarcoma. Actas Dermosifiliogr 2016; 107: e19-e22
  • 371 Mujtaba B, Wang F, Taher A. et al. Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans: Pathological and Imaging Review. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2020; DOI: 10.1067/j.cpradiol.2020.05.011.
  • 372 Wortsman X, Wortsman J, Arellano J. et al. Pilomatrixomas presenting as vascular tumors on color Doppler ultrasound. J Pediatr Surg 2010; 45: 2094-2098
  • 373 Solivetti FM, Desiderio F, Elia F. et al. Sonographic appearance of sebaceous cysts. Our experience and a review of the literature. Int J Dermatol 2019; 58: 1353-1359
  • 374 Rahmani G, McCarthy P, Bergin D. The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for soft tissue lipomas: a systematic review. Acta Radiol Open 2017; 6: 2058460117716704
  • 375 Raffin D, Zaragoza J, Georgescou G. et al. High-frequency ultrasound imaging for cutaneous neurofibroma in patients with neurofibromatosis type I. Eur J Dermatol 2017; 27: 260-265
  • 376 Romani J, Giavedoni P, Roe E. et al. Inter- and Intra-rater Agreement of Dermatologic Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Lobular and Septal Panniculitis. J Ultrasound Med 2020; 39: 107-112
  • 377 Guerin-Moreau M, Leftheriotis G, Le Corre Y. et al. High-frequency (20–50 MHz) ultrasonography of pseudoxanthoma elasticum skin lesions. Br J Dermatol 2013; 169: 1233-1239
  • 378 Dybiec E, Pietrzak A, Bartosinska J. et al. Ultrasound findings in cutaneous sarcoidosis. Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2015; 32: 51-55
  • 379 Benjamin M. The fascia of the limbs and back—a review. J Anat 2009; 214: 1-18
  • 380 Stecco C, Stern R, Porzionato A. et al. Hyaluronan within fascia in the etiology of myofascial pain. Surg Radiol Anat 2011; 33: 891-896
  • 381 Fede C, Gaudreault N, Fan C. et al. Morphometric and dynamic measurements of muscular fascia in healthy individuals using ultrasound imaging: a summary of the discrepancies and gaps in the current literature. Surg Radiol Anat 2018; 40: 1329-1341
  • 382 Santilli OL, Nardelli N, Santilli HA. et al. Sports hernias: experience in a sports medicine center. Hernia 2016; 20: 77-84
  • 383 Mohseni-Bandpei MA, Nakhaee M, Mousavi ME. et al. Application of ultrasound in the assessment of plantar fascia in patients with plantar fasciitis: a systemic review. Ultrasound Med Biol 2014; 40: 1737-1754
  • 384 Abul K, Ozer D, Sakizlioglu SS. et al. Detection of Normal Plantar Fascia Thickness in Adults via the Ultrasonographic Method. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2015; 105: 8-13
  • 385 Beggs I. Sonography of Muscle Hernias. Am J Roentgenol 2003; 180: 395-399
  • 386 Bloemen A, van Dooren P, Huizinga BF. et al. Comparison of ultrasonography and physical examination in the diagnosis of incisional hernia in a prospective study. Hernia 2012; 16: 53-57
  • 387 Shubert AG. Exertional compartment syndrome: Review of the literature and proposed rehabilitation guidelines following surgical release. Int J Sports Phys Ther 2011; 6: 126-141
  • 388 Wronski M, Slodkowski M, Cebulski W. et al. Necrotizing Fasciitis: Early Sonographic Diagnosis. J Clin Ultrasound 2011; 39: 236-239
  • 389 Lin CN, Hsiao CT, Chang CP. et al. The relationship between fluid accumulation in ultrasonography and the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with necrotizing fasciitis. Ultrasound Med Biol 2019; 45: 1545-1550
  • 390 Kissin EY, Garg A, Grayson PC. et al. Ultrasound Assessment of Subcutaneous Compressibility A Potential Adjunctive Diagnostic Tool in Eosinophilic Fasciitis. Jcr-J Clin Rheumatol 2013; 19: 382-385
  • 391 Chen IJ, Wang MT, Chang KV. et al. Ultrasonographic images of the hand in a case with early eosinophilic fasciitis. J Med Ultrason 2018; 45: 641-645
  • 392 Bedi DG, Davidson DM. Plantar fibromatosis: Most common sonographic appearance and variations. J Clin Ultrasound 2001; 29: 499-505
  • 393 Cohen BE, Murthy NS, McKenzie GA. Ultrasonography of Plantar Fibromatosis: Updated Case Series, Review of the Literature, and a Novel Descriptive Appearance Termed the “Comb Sign”. J Ultrasound Med 2018; 37: 2725-2731
  • 394 Ulusoy A, Tikiz C, Orguc S. Dupuytrenʼs Contracture With Rare Bilateral Thumb and Little Finger Involvement Demonstrated by Ultrasound Elastography. Arch Rheumatol 2015; 30: 357-360
  • 395 Molenkamp S, Broekstra DC, Werker PMN. Echogenicity of Palmar Dupuytrenʼs Nodules Is Not a Predictor of Disease Progression in Terms of Increase in Nodule Size. Plast Reconstruct Surg 2019; 143: 814-820
  • 396 Lee KJ, Jin W, Kim GY. et al. Sonographic Features of Superficial-Type Nodular Fasciitis in the Musculoskeletal System. J Ultrasound Med 2015; 34: 1465-1471
  • 397 Khuu A, Yablon CM, Jacobson JA. et al. Nodular Fasciitis Characteristic Imaging Features on Sonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. J Ultrasound Med 2014; 33: 565-573
  • 398 Yen HH, Chiou HJ, Chou YH. et al. Nodular fasciitis: sonographic-pathologic correlation. Ultrasound MedBiol 2017; 43: 860-867
  • 399 Hseu A, Watters K, Perez-Atayde A. et al. Pediatric Nodular Fasciitis in the Head and Neck Evaluation and Management. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015; 141: 54-59
  • 400 Park SY, Kim GY, Chun YS. Sonographic Appearance of Proliferative Fasciitis-A Case Report. J Clin Ultrasound 2017; 45: 445-449
  • 401 Bisi-Balogun A, Cassel M, Mayer F. Reliability of Various Measurement Stations for Determining Plantar Fascia Thickness and Echogenicity. Diagnostics (Basel) 2016; 6: 15
  • 402 Nakhaee M, Mousavi ME, Mohseni-Bandpei MA. et al. Intra and Inter-Rater Reliability of Ultrasound in Plantar Fascia Thickness Measurement. Iran J Radiol 2018; 15: e59022
  • 403 Abd Ellah MMH, Kremser C, Strobl S. et al. New Approach for B-Mode Ultrasound (US) Evaluation of the Plantar Aponeurosis (PA) Thickness in Healthy Subjects. Rofo 2019; 191: 333-339
  • 404 Cheng JW, Tsai WC, Yu TY. et al. Reproducibility of sonographic measurement of thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia. J Clin Ultrasound 2012; 40: 14-19
  • 405 Pirri C, Todros S, Fede C. et al. Inter-rater reliability and variability of ultrasound measurements of abdominal muscles and fasciae thickness. Clin Anat 2019; 32: 948-960
  • 406 Wortsman X, Jemec GBE. Ultrasound imaging of nails. Dermatol Clin 2006; 24: 323-328
  • 407 Wollina U, Berger M, Karte K. Calculation of nail plate and nail matrix parameters by 20 MHz ultrasound in healthy volunteers and patients with skin disease. Skin Res Technol 2001; 7: 60-64
  • 408 Aluja Jaramillo F, Quiasúa Mejia DC, Martínez Orduz HM. et al. Nail unit ultrasound: a complete guide of the nail diseases. J Ultrasound 2017; 20: 181-192
  • 409 Berritto D, Iacobellis F, Rossi C. et al. Ultra-high-frequency ultrasound: New capabilities for nail anatomy exploration. J Dermatol 2017; 44: 43-46
  • 410 Wortsman X, Alfageme F, Roustan G. et al. Guidelines for Performing Dermatologic Ultrasound Examinations by the DERMUS Group. J Ultrasound Med 2016; 35: 577-580
  • 411 Gutierrez M, Filippucci E, De Angelis R. et al. A sonographic spectrum of psoriatic arthritis: “the five targets”. Clin Rheumatol 2010; 29: 133-142
  • 412 Fassio A, Giovannini I, Idolazzi L. et al. Nail ultrasonography for psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis patients: a systematic literature review. Clin Rheumatol 2020; 39: 1391-1404
  • 413 Mendonca JA, Aydin SZ, DʼAgostino MA. The use of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of nail disease among patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: a systematic review. Adv Rheumatol 2019; 59: 41
  • 414 Gisondi P, Idolazzi L, Girolomoni G. Ultrasonography reveals nail thickening in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Arch Dermatol Res 2012; 304: 727-732
  • 415 Acquitter M, Misery L, Saraux A. et al. Detection of subclinical ultrasound enthesopathy and nail disease in patients at risk of psoriatic arthritis. Joint Bone Spine 2017; 84: 703-707
  • 416 Naredo E, Janta I, Baniandres-Rodriguez O. et al. To what extend is nail ultrasound discriminative between psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and healthy subjects?. Rheumatol Int 2019; 39: 697-705
  • 417 Soto R, Aldunce MJ, Wortsman X. et al. Subungual Schwannoma with Clinical, Sonographic, and Histologic Correlation. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2014; 104: 302-304
  • 418 Choi JH, Shin DH, Shin DS. et al. Subungual keratoacanthoma: ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Skeletal Radiol 2007; 36: 769-772
  • 419 Quintana-Codina M, Creus-Vila L, Iglesias-Plaza A. et al. Sonographic appearance of subungual squamous cell carcinoma in the hand. J Clin Ultrasound 2018; 46: 212-214
  • 420 Cinotti E, Veronesi G, Labeille B. et al. Imaging technique for the diagnosis of onychomatricoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018; 32: 1874-1878
  • 421 Nakamura Y, Fujisawa Y, Teramoto Y. et al. Tumor-to-bone distance of invasive subungual melanoma: An analysis of 30 cases. J Dermatol 2014; 41: 872-877
  • 422 Cha SM, Shin HD, Park YC. Surgical Resection of Occult Subungual Glomus Tumors: Cold Sensitivity and Sonographic Findings. Ann Plast Surg 2018; 81: 411-415
  • 423 Chiang YP, Hsu CY, Lien WC. et al. Ultrasonographic Appearance of Subungual Glomus Tumors. J Clin Ultrasound 2014; 42: 336-340
  • 424 Lee W, Kwon SB, Cho SH. et al. Glomus Tumor of the Hand. Arch Plast Surg 2015; 42: 295-301
  • 425 Lin YC, Hsiao PF, Wu YH. et al. Recurrent Digital Glomus Tumor: Analysis of 75 Cases. Dermatol Surg 2010; 36: 1396-1400
  • 426 Pandey CR, Singh N, Tamang B. Subungual Glomus Tumours: Is Magnetic Resonance Imaging or Ultrasound Necessary for Diagnosis?. Malays Orthop J 2017; 11: 47-51
  • 427 Wortsman X, Jemec GBE. Role of High-Variable Frequency Ultrasound in Preoperative Diagnosis of Glomus Tumors A Pilot Study. Am J Clin Dermatol 2009; 10: 23-27
  • 428 Whittle C, Aguirre J, Catalan V. et al. Subungual Exostosis: High-Resolution Ultrasound Findings. J Diagn Med Sonogr 2019; 35: 387-390
  • 429 Wortsman X, Wortsman J, Soto R. et al. Benign Tumors and Pseudotumors of the Nail A Novel Application of Sonography. J Ultrasound Med 2010; 29: 803-816
  • 430 Wortsman X, Gutierrez M, Saavedra T. et al. The role of ultrasound in rheumatic skin and nail lesions: a multi-specialist approach. Clin Rheumatol 2011; 30: 739-748
  • 431 Singh R, Bryson D, Singh HP. et al. High-resolution ultrasonography in assessment of nail-related disorders. Skeletal Radiol 2012; 41: 1251-1261
  • 432 Rodriguez-Takeuchi SY, Villota V, Renjifo M. Anatomy and pathology of the nail and subungual space: Imaging evaluation of benign lesions. Clin Imaging 2018; 52: 356-364
  • 433 Wortsman X, Calderon P, Baran R. Finger retronychias detected early by 3D ultrasound examination. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2012; 26: 254-256
  • 434 Fernandez J, Reyes-Baraona F, Wortsman X. Ultrasonographic Criteria for Diagnosing Unilateral and Bilateral Retronychia. J Ultrasound Med 2018; 37: 1201-1209
  • 435 Gungor F, Akyol KC, Eken C. et al. The value of point-of-care ultrasound for detecting nail bed injury in ED. Am J Emerg Med 2016; 34: 1850-1854