Hamostaseologie 2023; 43(02): 126-131
DOI: 10.1055/a-1733-2143
Original Article

High Prevalence of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 4G/5G Polymorphism among Patients with Venous Thromboembolism in Kerala, India

Ann Maria Tony
1   Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India
Vivek Vinod
1   Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India
Vivek Nambiar
2   Department of Stroke Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India
Sajitha Krishnan
3   Department of Biochemistry, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India
Lalitha Biswas
1   Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India
› Author Affiliations


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a multifactorial clotting disorder in which inherited and environmental factors synergistically contribute to its pathogenesis. The aim of this case–control study was to analyze the prevalence of hereditary thrombophilic risk factors, provoking and non-provoking environmental risk factors in patients with VTE from Kerala, India. We have observed a low prevalence of factor V Leiden (7%), prothrombin G20210A (2%), and prothrombin G20030A (2%) mutations and a high prevalence of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G (52%), PAI-1 4G/4G (24%) genotypes in the VTE patients (n = 147). Deficiency of anticoagulants, antithrombin (3.4%), and protein C (4.1%) was relatively low. None of the risk factors were observed in 17% of the patients. Majority of VTE patients were younger than 50 years with a median age of 43 years. In conclusion, our results indicate a high prevalence of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism among the VTE patients which is in concordance with previous studies in the Asian population. The PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism could be a potential biomarker for assessing VTE risk, particularly among the Indian population.

Publication History

Received: 18 February 2021

Accepted: 06 January 2022

Article published online:
07 March 2022

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