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Effects of Peri-Conception and Pregnancy Glycemic Variability on Pregnancy and Perinatal Complications in Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study
Background Not much is known about the effects of glycemic variability (GV) during the pre- and periconception period on pregnancy/perinatal complications. GV could potentially contribute to identification of high-risk pregnancies in women with type 1 diabetes.
Methods An explorative retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2014 and May 2019. Glucose data were retrieved from electronic patient charts. Pre-/periconceptional GV and GV during all three trimesters was expressed as mean glucose, standard deviation (SD), Coefficient of Variation (CV), High Blood Glucose Index (HBGI), Low Blood Glucose Index (LBGI) and Average Daily Risk Range (ADRR). Maternal and neonatal complications were summarized using a composite total complication score. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between the GV measures and a total complication score>3, a maternal complication score>1 and a neonatal complication score>1.
Results Of 63 eligible women, 29 women (38 pregnancies) were included. Women in the group with a total complication score>3 had a significantly higher ADRR at conception (OR 1.1, CI 1.0–1.2, p=0.048). No statistically significant correlations between complication score and any other GV metric besides the ADRR were found. Although not significant, in the group with a complication score>3, odds ratios>1 were found for SD in trimester 1 (OR 1.6, CI 0.6–4.5, p=0.357) and trimester 2 (OR 1.8, CI 0.5–6.2, p=0.376).
Conclusions Presence of a positive association between GV and pregnancy and perinatal complications depends on which pregnancy period is assessed and the GV metrics that are used.
Received: 12 May 2021
Received: 28 February 2022
Accepted: 07 March 2022
Accepted Manuscript online:
14 March 2022
Article published online:
21 November 2022
© 2022. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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