CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Horm Metab Res
DOI: 10.1055/a-1878-9566
Review

Diabetes and COVID-19: Short- and long-term consequences

1   Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
,
Mohamed Hassanein
2   Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Dubai Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
,
Emran G. Khan
3   Endocrinology and Diabetology, King’s College Hospital London, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
,
Mohamad Yaman
4   Building 6, Nesmah Technology, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
,
Margrit Kamel
5   Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
,
Mahmoud Babir
6   Department of Cardiology, Harefield Hospital, Harefield, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Ringgold ID: RIN156725)
,
Dietrich Lorke
7   Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (Ringgold ID: RIN105955)
,
John A. Rock
8   College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (Ringgold ID: RIN105955)
,
Dean Everett
9   Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (Ringgold ID: RIN105955)
,
Saqipi Bejtullah
10   Research Unit, College Heimerer, Prishtina, Serbia (Ringgold ID: RIN510470)
,
Adrian Heimerer
10   Research Unit, College Heimerer, Prishtina, Serbia (Ringgold ID: RIN510470)
,
Ermal Tahirukaj
11   Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
,
Petrit Beqiri
10   Research Unit, College Heimerer, Prishtina, Serbia (Ringgold ID: RIN510470)
,
Stefan R. Bornstein
12   Department of Medicine, Carl Gustav Carus, University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Supported by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 288034826,314061271

When the corona pandemic commenced more than two years ago, it was quickly recognized that people with metabolic diseases show an augmented risk of severe COVID-19 and an increased mortality compared to people without these comorbidities. Furthermore, an infection with SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to lead to an aggravation of metabolic diseases and in single cases to new-onset metabolic disorders. In addition to the increased risk for people with diabetes in the acute phase of COVID-19, this patient group also seems to be more often affected by long-COVID and to experience more long-term consequences than people without diabetes. The mechanisms behind these discrepancies between people with and without diabetes in relation to COVID-19 are not completely understood yet and will require further research and follow-up studies during the following years. In the current review, we discuss why patients with diabetes have this higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms not only in the acute phase of the disease but also in relation to long-COVID, vaccine breakthrough infections and re-infections. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of lockdown on glycemic control.



Publication History

Received: 16 March 2022

Accepted after revision: 04 April 2022

Accepted Manuscript online:
20 June 2022

© 2022. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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