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Generating Operative Workflows for Vestibular Schwannoma Resection: A Two-Stage Delphi's Consensus in Collaboration with the British Skull Base Society. Part 1: The Retrosigmoid Approach
Objective An operative workflow systematically compartmentalizes operations into hierarchal components of phases, steps, instrument, technique errors, and event errors. Operative workflow provides a foundation for education, training, and understanding of surgical variation. In this Part 1, we present a codified operative workflow for the retrosigmoid approach to vestibular schwannoma resection.
Methods A mixed-method consensus process of literature review, small-group Delphi's consensus, followed by a national Delphi's consensus, was performed in collaboration with British Skull Base Society (BSBS). Each Delphi's round was repeated until data saturation and over 90% consensus was reached.
Results Eighteen consultant skull base surgeons (10 neurosurgeons and 8 ENT [ear, nose, and throat]) with median 17.9 years of experience (interquartile range: 17.5 years) of independent practice participated. There was a 100% response rate across both Delphi's rounds. The operative workflow for the retrosigmoid approach contained three phases and 40 unique steps as follows: phase 1, approach and exposure; phase 2, tumor debulking and excision; phase 3, closure. For the retrosigmoid approach, technique, and event error for each operative step was also described.
Conclusion We present Part 1 of a national, multicenter, consensus-derived, codified operative workflow for the retrosigmoid approach to vestibular schwannomas that encompasses phases, steps, instruments, technique errors, and event errors. The codified retrosigmoid approach presented in this manuscript can serve as foundational research for future work, such as operative workflow analysis or neurosurgical simulation and education.
Keywordsretrosigmoid - translabyrinthine - vestibular schwannoma - skull base surgery - consensus - Delphi
This work has not been presented, either partly or wholly.
Study conception and methodology was led by H.J.M., J.C., M.F., M.G., D.Z.K., C.H.K., H.L.H. and W.M. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by H.L.H., D.Z.K., J.C., S.C., S.R.F., N.G., S.H., C.H., R.I., N.K., A.K., S.K., C.H.K., C.L., H.J.M., W.M., R.O., O.P., I.J.A.R., J.S., D.S., M.T., J.R.T., S.R.S., and P.G. contributed to data collection. The first draft of the manuscript was written by H.L.H., H.J.M. and P.G. All authors reviewed and edited subsequent versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Ethical and Informed Consent
Ethical approval and informed consent were unnecessary due to the nature of the study (consensus process amongst health care professionals).
The data for this article is available upon reasonable request.
* Denotes joint senior authorship.
Received: 03 March 2022
Accepted: 20 June 2022
Accepted Manuscript online:
28 June 2022
Article published online:
10 October 2022
© 2022. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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