pferde spiegel 2023; 26(01): 8-15
DOI: 10.1055/a-1939-0833

Rehabilitation in der Pferdeorthopädie – Was ist der Stand der Wissenschaft?

Natalie Baudisch
Christoph Lischer
Anna Ehrle

Eine erfolgreiche Rehabilitation setzt eine akkurate Diagnose voraus, um darauf abgestimmte Rehabilitationsmaßnahmen auszuwählen. Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick über gängige orthopädische Rehabilitationsverfahren für Pferde und beleuchtet gleichzeitig den zur Verfügung stehenden wissenschaftlichen Hintergrund.

Literaturverzeichnis als PDF

Publication History

Article published online:
31 March 2023

© 2023. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

  • Literatur

  • 1 Organization: World health organization. Rehabilitation 2021. Accessed July 12, 2022 at:
  • 2 Wilson JM, McKenzie E, Duesterdieck-Zellmer K. International survey regarding the use of rehabilitation modalities in horses. Front Vet Sci 2018; 5: 120
  • 3 Turner TA. Overriding spinous processes in horse – diagnosis, treatment and outcome. Proceedings of the 57th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners 2011; 57: 424-430
  • 4 Walmsley JP, Pettersson H, Winberg F, McEvoy F. Impingement of the dorsal spinous processes in two hundred and fifteen horses: case selection, surgical technique and results. Equine Vet Journal 2002; 34 (01) 23-28
  • 5 Atalaia T, Prazeres J, Abrantes J, Clayton HM. Equine rehabilitation: a scoping review of the literature. Animals (Basel) 2021; 11(6)
  • 6 Coomer RP, McKane SA, Smith N, Vandeweerd JM. A controlled study evaluating a novel surgical treatment for kissing spines in standing sedated horses. Vet Surg 2012; 41 (07) 890-897
  • 7 Fiske-Jackson A. Diagnosis and management of impinging spinous processes. Equine 2018; 2: 15-21
  • 8 Haussler KK. Managing Back Pain. In Sprayberry KA, Robinson NE. Robinsonʼs Current Therapy in Equine Medicine. London, England: W. B. Saunders 2015; 92-96
  • 9 Paulekas R, Haussler KK. Principles and practice of therapeutic exercise for horses. J Equine Vet Sci 2009; 29 (12) 870-893
  • 10 Walker VA, Dyson SJ, Murray RC. Effect of a pessoa training aid on temporal, linear and angular variables of the working trot. Vet J 2013; 198 (02) 404-411
  • 11 Nankervis KJ, Launder EJ, Murray RC. The use of treadmills within the rehabilitation of horses. J Equine Vet Sci 2017; 53: 108-115
  • 12 McClintock SA, Hutchins DR, Brownlow MA. Determination of weight reduction in horses in flotation tanks. Equine Vet J 1987; 19 (01) 70-71
  • 13 Smith WN. Use of a flotation tank to sling horses and cattle undergoing surgery to the limbs. Austral Vet J 1981; 57 (10) 441-443
  • 14 King MR, Haussler KK, Kawcak CE, McIlwraith CW, Reiser RF II. Effect of underwater treadmill exercise on postural sway in horses with experimentally induced carpal joint osteoarthritis. Am J Vet Res 2013; 74 (07) 971-982
  • 15 Nankervis KJ, Finney P, Launder L. Water depth modifies back kinematics of horses during water treadmill exercise. Equine Vet J 2016; 48 (06) 732-736
  • 16 Buchner HH, Savelberg HH, Schamhardt HC, Merkens HW, Barneveld A. Kinematics of treadmill versus overground locomotion in horses. Vet Q 1994; 16 Suppl 2: S87-90
  • 17 Clayton HM, Kaiser LJ, Lavagnino M, Stubbs NC. Evaluation of intersegmental vertebral motion during performance of dynamic mobilization exercises in cervical lateral bending in horses. Am J Vet Res 2012; 73 (08) 1153-1159
  • 18 Garcia Lineiro JA, Graziotti GH, Rodriguez Menendez JM, Rios CM, Affricano NO, Victorica CL. Structural and functional characteristics of the thoracolumbar multifidus muscle in horses. J Anat 2017; 230 (03) 398-406
  • 19 Stubbs NC, Hodges PW, Jeffcott LB, Cowin G, Hodgson DR, McGowan CM. Functional anatomy of the caudal thoracolumbar and lumbosacral spine in the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal 2006; 38 (36) 393-399
  • 20 Stubbs NC, Kaiser LJ, Hauptman J, Clayton HM. Dynamic mobilisation exercises increase cross sectional area of musculus multifidus. Equine Vet J 2011; 43 (05) 522-529
  • 21 Coomer RPC, Looijen MGP, Handel LG, McKane SA. Results of a pilot study using serial ultrasonographic measurements of multifidus muscle in horses undergoing rehabilitation after medical or surgical treatment for overriding dorsal spinous processes. Pferdeheilkunde 2022; 38 (05) 428-435
  • 22 Ellis KL, King MR. Relationship between postural stability and paraspinal muscle adaptation in lame horses undergoing rehabilitation. J Equine Vet Sci 2020; 91: 103108
  • 23 Long K, McGowan CM, Hyytiainen HK. Effect of caudal traction on mechanical nociceptive thresholds of epaxial and pelvic musculature on a group of horses with signs of back pain. J Equine Vet Sci 2020; 93: 103197
  • 24 Graf A. Wie nützlich ist die Algometrie bei der klinischen Untersuchung der Rückengesundheit von Pferden. Abteilung Sportmedizin. Universität Zürich; 2021
  • 25 Daglish J, Mama KR. Pain: Its Diagnosis and Management in the Rehabilitation of Horses. Vet Clin North Am: Equine Practice 2016; 32 (01) 13-29
  • 26 Halsberghe BT, Gordon-Ross P, Peterson R. Whole body vibration affects the cross-sectional area and symmetry of the m. multifidus of the thoracolumbar spine in the horse. Equine Vet Educ 2017; 29 (09) 493-499
  • 27 Haussler KK. Review of Manual Therapy Techniques in Equine Practice. J Equine Vet Sci 2009; 29 (12) 849-869
  • 28 Kreling K. Sportmedizin vs. alternative manuelle Behandlungsmethoden–wer macht was?. Pferdespiegel 2014; 17 (02) 88-90
  • 29 Burgaud I, Biau S, Aujol K. Impact of osteopathic treatment on locomotion in the sports horse in the field. Pratique Vétérinaire Equine 2013; 45 (178) 45-53
  • 30 Gomez Alvarez CB, LʼAmi JJ, Moffat D, Back W, van Weeren PR. Effect of chiropractic manipulations on the kinematics of back and limbs in horses with clinically diagnosed back problems. Equine Vet J 2008; 40 (02) 153-159
  • 31 Haussler KK, Erb HN. Pressure algometry: Objective assessment of back pain and effects of chiropractic treatment. Proc Am Ass Equine Pract 2003; 49: 66-70
  • 32 Haussler KK, Hill AE, Puttlitz CM, McIlwraith CW. Effects of vertebral mobilization and manipulation on kinematics of the thoracolumbar region. Am J Vet Res 2007; 68 (05) 508-516
  • 33 Haussler KK, Martin CE, Hill AE. Efficacy of spinal manipulation and mobilisation on trunk flexibility and stiffness in horses: a randomised clinical trial. Equine Vet J 2010; 42: 695-702
  • 34 Hill C, Crook T. The relationship between massage to the equine caudal hindlimb muscles and hindlimb protraction. Equine Vet J Suppl 2010; 38: 683-687
  • 35 Sullivan KA, Hill AE, Haussler KK. The effects of chiropractic, massage and phenylbutazone on spinal mechanical nociceptive thresholds in horses without clinical signs. Equine Vet J 2008; 40 (01) 14-20
  • 36 Olson JE, Stravino VD. A Review of Cryotherapy. Physical Therapy 1972; 52 (08) 840-853
  • 37 Buchner HH, Schildboeck U. Physiotherapy applied to the horse: a review. Equine Vet J 2006; 38 (06) 574-580
  • 38 Ho SSW, Coel MN, Kagawa R, Richardson AB. The effects of ice on blood flow and bone metabolism in knees. Am J Sports Med 1994; 22 (04) 537-540
  • 39 Kaneps AJ. Practical rehabilitation and physical therapy for the general equine practitioner. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2016; 32 (01) 167-180
  • 40 Van Eps AW, Pollitt CC. Equine laminitis: cryotherapy reduces the severity of the acute lesion. Equine Vet J 2004; 36 (03) 255-260
  • 41 Richter W, Schmidt W. Milde Ganzkörper-Hyperthermie mit Infrarot-C-Strahlung. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Onkologie 2002; 34 (02) 49-58
  • 42 Sliney DH. What is light? The visible spectrum and beyond. Eye (Lond) 2016; 30 (02) 222-229
  • 43 Kalinowski S, Rohn K, Kreling K, Stadler P. Die Therapie von Pferden mit Rückenproblemen in einer Infrarot-Strahlungskabine. Pferdeheilkunde 2008; 24: 313-324
  • 44 Pluim M, Martens A, Vanderperren K, Sarrazin S, Koene M, Luciani A, van Weeren PR, Delesalle C. Short- and long term follow-up of 150 sports horses diagnosed with tendinopathy or desmopathy by ultrasonographic examination and treated with high-power laser therapy. Res Vet Sci 2018; 119: 232-238
  • 45 Casalechi HL, Leal-Junior EC, Xavier M, Silva Jr JA, de Carvalho Pde T, Aimbire F, Albertini R. Low-level laser therapy in experimental model of collagenase-induced tendinitis in rats: effects in acute and chronic inflammatory phases. Lasers Med Sci 2013; 28 (03) 989-995
  • 46 Elwakil TF. An in-vivo experimental evaluation of He-Ne laser photostimulation in healing achilles tendons. Lasers Med Sci 2007; 22 (01) 53-59
  • 47 Laraia EM, Silva IS, Pereira DM, dos Reis FA, Albertini R, de Almeida P, Leal Junior EC. de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho P. Effect of low-level laser therapy (660 nm) on acute inflammation induced by tenotomy of achilles tendon in rats. Photochem Photobiol 2012; 88 (06) 1546-1550
  • 48 Marcos RL, Arnold G, Magnenet V, Rahouadj R, Magdalou J, Lopes-Martins RAB. Biomechanical and biochemical protective effect of low-level laser therapy for Achilles tendinitis. J Mechan Behav Biomedical Mat 2014; 29: 272-285
  • 49 Larkin KA, Martin JS, Zeanah EH, True JM, Braith RW, Borsa PA. Limb blood flow after class 4 laser therapy. J Athl Train 2012; 47 (02) 178-183
  • 50 Maegawa Y, Itoh T, Hosokawa T, Yaegashi K, Nishi M. Effects of near‐infrared low‐level laser irradiation on microcirculation. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine: The Official Journal of the American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery 2000; 27 (05) 427-437
  • 51 Neumann KB. Untersuchung der Wirkung Extrakorporaler Stoßwellentherapie auf die Haut in Fachbereich Chemie. Universität Hamburg; 2012
  • 52 Ogden JA, Tóth-Kischkat A, Schultheiss R. Principles of shock wave therapy. Clin Orth Related Res 2001; 387: 8-17
  • 53 Ueberle F. Shock Wave Technology. Extracorporeal Shock Waves in Orthopaedics. Siebert W, Buch M. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 1998: 59-60
  • 54 Wess O. Physikalische Grundlagen der extrakorporalen Stoßwellentherapie. Journal für Mineralstoffwechsel & Muskuloskelettale Erkrankungen 2004; 11 (04) 7-18
  • 55 Imtiaz A, Bilal M. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine, Micheli LJ. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications; 2011: 480-481
  • 56 Santamato A, Beatrice R, Micello MF, Fortunato F, Panza F, Bristogiannis F, Cleopazzo E, Macarini L, Picelli A, Baricich A, Ranieri M. Power doppler ultrasound findings before and after focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy for achilles tendinopathy: A pilot study on pain reduction and neovascularization effect. Ultrasound Med Biol 2019; 45 (05) 1316-1323
  • 57 Ekkernkamp A, Bosse A, Haupt G, Pommer A. Der Einfluß der extrakorporalen Stoßwellen auf die standardisierte Tibiafraktur am Schaf. Aktuelle Aspekte der Osteologie. Ittel TH, Sieberth HG, Matthias HH. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 1992: 307-310
  • 58 Trager LR, Funk RA, Clapp KS, Dahlgren LA, Werre SR, Hodgson DR, Pleasant RS. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy raises mechanical nociceptive threshold in horses with thoracolumbar pain. Equine Vet J 2020; 52 (02) 250-257
  • 59 Walewicz K, Taradaj J, Rajfur K, Ptaszkowski K, Kuszewski MT, Sopel M, Dymarek R. The effectiveness of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with chronic low back pain: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded pilot study. Clin Interv Aging 2019; 14: 1859-1869
  • 60 Wang CJ, Huang HY, Pai CH. Shock wave-enhanced neovascularization at the tendon-bone junction: an experiment in dogs. J Foot Ankle Surg 2002; 41 (01) 16-22
  • 61 Wang CJ, Wang FS, Yang KD, Weng LH, Hsu CC, Huang CS, Yang LC. Shock wave therapy induces neovascularization at the tendon-bone junction. A study in rabbits. J Orthop Res 2003; 21 (06) 984-989
  • 62 Wang CJ, Sun YC, Wong T, Hsu SL, Chou WY, Chang HW. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows time-dependent chondroprotective effects in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats. J Surg Res 2012; 178 (01) 196-205
  • 63 Crowe OM, Dyson SJ, Wright IM, Schramme MC, Smith RKW. Treatment of chronic or recurrent proximal suspensory desmitis using radial pressure wave therapy in the horse. Equine Vet J 2004; 36 (04) 313-316
  • 64 Frisbie DD, Kawcak CE, McIlwraith CW. Evaluation of the effect of extracorporeal shock wave treatment on experimentally induced osteoarthritis in middle carpal joints of horses. Am J Vet Res 2009; 70 (04) 449-454
  • 65 Giunta K, Donnell JR, Donnell AD, Frisbie DD. Prospective randomized comparison of platelet rich plasma to extracorporeal shockwave therapy for treatment of proximal suspensory pain in western performance horses. Res Vet Sci 2019; 126: 38-44
  • 66 Lischer CJ, Ringer SK, Schnewlin M, Imboden I, Fürst A, Stöckli M, Auer J. Treatment of chronic proximal suspensory desmitis in horses using focused electrohydraulic shockwave therapy. Schw Archiv Tierheilk 2006; 148 (10) 561-568
  • 67 McCarroll GD, McClure S. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for treatment of osteoarthritis of the tarsometatarsal and distal intertarsal joints of the horse. Proceedings. 46th Annu Meet Am Assoc Equine Pract 2000.
  • 68 Blum N, Kreling K, Litzke LF. Der Einsatz der extrakorporalen Stoßwellentherapie zur Behandlung des Podotrochlose-Syndroms. Pferdeheilkunde 2005; 21: 29-38
  • 69 Brown KE, Nickels FA, Caron JP, Mullineaux DR, Clayton HM. Investigation of the immediate analgesic effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for treatment of navicular disease in horses. Vet Surg 2005; 34 (06) 554-558
  • 70 Kersh KD, McClure SR, Van Sickle D, Evans RB. The evaluation of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on collagenase induced superficial digital flexor tendonitis. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2006; 19 (02) 99-105
  • 71 Waguespack RW, Burba DJ, Hubert JD, Vidal MA, Lomax LG, Chirgwin SR, Lopez MJ. Effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on desmitis of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in the horse. Vet Surg 2011; 40 (04) 450-456
  • 72 Allen AK, Johns S, Hyman SS, Sislak MD, Davis S, Amory J. How to diagnose and treat back pain in the horse. AAEP Proceedings 2010; 56: 384-388
  • 73 McClure S, Weinberger T. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy: Clinical applications and regulation. Clinical Techniques in Equine Practice 2003; 2 (04) 358-367
  • 74 Doan N, Reher P, Meghji S, Harris M. In vitro effects of therapeutic ultrasound on cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and cytokine production by human fibroblasts, osteoblasts, and monocytes. J Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 1999; 57 (04) 409-419
  • 75 Maiti SK, Kumar N, Singh GR, Hoque M, Singh R. Ultrasound therapy in tendinous injury healing in goats. J Vet Med Series A 2006; 53 (05) 249-258
  • 76 Singh K, Sobti V, Roy K. Gross and histomorphological effects of therapeutic ultrasound (1 Watt/cm2) in exprerimental acute traumatic arthritis in donkeys. J Equine Vet Sci 1997; 17 (03) 150-155
  • 77 ter Haar G. Therapeutic ultrasound. European J Ultrasound 1999; 9 (01) 3-9
  • 78 Montgomery L, Elliott SB, Adair HS. Muscle and tendon heating rates with therapeutic ultrasound in horses. Vet Surg 2013; 42 (03) 243-249
  • 79 Carrozzo U, Toniato M, Harrison A. Assessment of noninvasive low-frequency ultrasound as a means of treating injuries to suspensory ligaments in horses: A research paper. J Equine Vet Sci 2019; 80: 80-89
  • 80 Gregory CM, Bickel CS. Recruitment patterns in human skeletal muscle during electrical stimulation. Physical Therapy 2005; 85 (04) 358-364
  • 81 Kern H, Boncompagni S, Rossini K, Mayr W, Fanò G, Zanin ME, Podhorska-Okolow M, Protasi F, Carraro U. Long-term denervation in humans causes degeneration of both contractile and excitation-contraction coupling apparatus, which is reversible by functional electrical stimulation (FES): a role for myofiber regeneration?. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2004; 63 (09) 919-931
  • 82 Kern H, Rossini K, Carraro U, Mayr W, Vogelauer M, Hoellwarth U, Hofer C. Muscle biopsies show that FES of denervated muscles reverses human muscle degeneration from permanent spinal motoneuron lesion. J Rehabil Res Dev 2005; 42 (03) 43-53
  • 83 Schils S, Carraro U, Turner T, Ravara B, Gobbo V, Kern H, Gelbmann L, Pribyl J. Functional electrical stimulation for equine muscle hypertonicity: histological changes in mitochondrial density and distribution. J Equine Vet Sci 2015; 35(11 – 12): 907-916
  • 84 Schils SJ. Review of electrotherapy devices for use in veterinary medicine. Proceedings of the 55th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Las Vegas, NV 2009.
  • 85 Schils SJ. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) for use in equine medicine. Performance diagnosis and purchase examination of elite sport horses. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Lindner A. Wageningen Academic Publishers 2010; 103-108
  • 86 Yan T, Hui-Chan CW, Li LS. Functional electrical stimulation improves motor recovery of the lower extremity and walking ability of subjects with first acute stroke: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Stroke 2005; 36 (01) 80-85
  • 87 Schils SJ, Turner TA. Functional electrical stimulation for equine epaxial muscle spasms: retrospective study of 241 clinical cases. Comp Exercise Physiol 2014; 10 (02) 89-97
  • 88 Cercone M, Jarvis JC, Ducharme NG, Perkins J, Piercy RJ, Willand MP, Mitchell LM, Sledziona M, Soderholm L, Cheetham J. Functional electrical stimulation following nerve injury in a large animal model. Muscle Nerve 2019; 59 (06) 717-725
  • 89 Cheetham J, Perkins JD, Jarvis JC, Cercone M, Maw M, Hermanson JW, Mitchell LM, Piercy RJ, Ducharme NG. Effects of functional electrical stimulation on denervated laryngeal muscle in a large animal model. Artif Organs 2015; 39 (10) 876-885
  • 90 Lucas RG, Rodriguez-Hurtado I, Alvarez CT, Ortiz G. Effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dynamic mobilization exercises on equine multifidus muscle cross-sectional area. J Equine Vet Sci 2022; 113: 103934
  • 91 Bergh A, Nordlof H, Essen-Gustavsson B. Evaluation of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on fibre characteristics and oxidative capacity in equine skeletal muscles. Equine Vet J Suppl 2010; (38) 671-675
  • 92 Becero M, Saitua A, Arguelles A, Sanchez de Medina AL, Castejon-Riber C, Riber C, Munoz A. Capacitive resistive electric transfer modifies gait pattern in horses exercised on a treadmill. BMC Vet Res 2020; 16 (01) 10
  • 93 Arguelles D, Becero M, Munoz A, Saitua A, Ramon T, Gascon E, Sanchez de Medina A, Prades M. Accelerometric changes before and after capacitive resistive electric transfer therapy in horses with thoracolumbar pain compared to a SHAM procedure. Animals (Basel) 2020; 10(12)
  • 94 Edner A, Lindberg LG, Brostrom H, Bergh A. Does a magnetic blanket induce changes in muscular blood flow, skin temperature and muscular tension in horses?. Equine Vet J 2015; 47 (03) 302-307
  • 95 Rindler N, Biermann N, Westermann S, Buchner H. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on surface temperature of horsesʼ backs. Wiener Tierarztl Monatsschrift 2014; 101: 137-141
  • 96 Biermann NM, Rindler N, Buchner HHF. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on back pain in polo ponies evaluated by pressure algometry and flexion testing–a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Equine Vet Sci 2014; 34 (04) 500-507
  • 97 King MR, Seabaugh KA, Frisbie DD. Effects of a bio-electromagnetic energy regulation blanket on thoracolumbar epaxial muscle pain in horses. J Equine Vet Sci 2022; 111: 103867
  • 98 le Jeune S, Henneman K, May K. Acupuncture and Equine Rehabilitation. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2016; 32 (01) 73-85
  • 99 Cabýoglu MT, Ergene N, Tan U. The mechanism of acupuncture and clinical applications. International J Neuroscience 2006; 116 (02) 115-125
  • 100 Lu DP, Lu GP. An historical review and perspective on the impact of acupuncture on U.S. medicine and society. Med Acupunct 2013; 25 (05) 311-316
  • 101 Wang SM, Kain ZN, White P. Acupuncture analgesia: I. The scientific basis. Anesth Analg 2008; 106 (02) 602-610
  • 102 Haussler KK. Complementary therapies for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. In: Robinson NE. Curr Ther Equine Med London, England: W.B. Saunders; 2003: 567-571
  • 103 Klide AM. Acupuncture for treatment of chronic back pain in the horse. Acupunct Electrother Res 1984; 9 (01) 57-70
  • 104 Klide AM, Martin Jr. BB. Methods of stimulating acupuncture points for treatment of chronic back pain in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989; 195 (10) 1375-1379
  • 105 Martin BB, Klide A. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic back pain in horses. AAEP Proceedings 1997; 43: 310-311
  • 106 Martin Jr BB, Klide AM. Treatment of chronic back pain in horses. Stimulation of acupuncture points with a low powered infrared laser. Vet Surg 1987; 16 (01) 106-110
  • 107 Varhus J, Huisheng X. A randomized, controlled and blinded study investigating the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating horses with gluteal or lumbar pain. American J Traditional Chinese Vet Med 2019; 14 (02) 23-30
  • 108 Xie H, Colahan P, Ott EA. Evaluation of electroacupuncture treatment of horses with signs of chronic thoracolumbar pain. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 227: 281-286
  • 109 Dunkel B, Pfau T, Fiske-Jackson A, Veres-Nyeki KO, Fairhurst H, Jackson K, Chang YM, Bolt DM. A pilot study of the effects of acupuncture treatment on objective and subjective gait parameters in horses. Vet Anaesth Analg 2017; 44 (01) 154-162
  • 110 Molle S. Kinesio taping fundamentals for the equine athlete. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2016; 32 (01) 103-113
  • 111 Zellner A, Bockstahler B, Peham C. The effects of kinesio taping on the trajectory of the forelimb and the muscle activity of the musculus brachiocephalicus and the musculus extensor carpi radialis in horses. PLoS One 2017; 12 (11) e0186371
  • 112 Ericson C, Stenfeldt P, Hardeman A, Jacobson I. The effect of kinesiotape on flexion-extension of the thoracolumbar back in horses at trot. Animals (Basel) 2020; 10 (02) 301
  • 113 Garcia Piqueres M, Eacute F, Jackson PS. Evaluation of kinesio taping applied to the equine thoracolumbar spine: clinical response and mechanical nociceptive threshold. J Vet Medical Res 2021; 28 (01) 1-11
  • 114 Baudisch N, Lischer C, Ehrle A. Behandlung des „Kissing Spines“-Syndroms beim Pferd – Teil 1: Literaturübersicht zur Wirksamkeit konservativer Therapiemethoden. Pferdeheilkunde 2022; 38: 217-234