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The Predictors of Postoperative Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak in Endoscopic Endonasal Pituitary Surgery: The Role of Tumor Volume
Objectives Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (Po-CSF) leak is still a challenging complication of endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery. However, data describing the predictive factors of Po-CSF leak in pure pituitary adenomas is lacking. Aim of this study is to determine the risk factors of Po-CSF leak in a pituitary adenoma group operated via pure transsellar endoscopic approach.
Design This is a retrospective cohort study.
Setting A single-center academic hospital.
Participants Patients operated for a pituitary adenoma between 2015 and 2021 and followed up until June 2022 were included.
Main Outcome Measures Demographics, comorbidities, imaging, and outcome were recorded. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors of Po-CSF leak.
Results Of the total 170 patients with a mean age of 47.5 ± 13.8 (min: 15; max: 80), 11 (6.5%) had Po-CSF leak. Univariate analysis revealed age, diabetes mellitus (DM), and tumor volume as predictors of Po-CSF leak. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, 7.5 cm3 of tumor volume was found to be a good cutoff value with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 75%. Hence, multivariable logistic regression model adjusted by age showed that a tumor volume of > 7.5 cm3 (odds ratio [OR]: 22.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.8–135.9, p = 0.001) and DM (OR: 8.9; 95% CI: 1.7–46.5; p = 0.010) are strong independent risk factors of Po-CSF leak in pure endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery.
Conclusion Besides younger age and DM, a cutoff value for tumor volume > 7.5 cm3 is the most remarkable risk factor for Po-CSF leak in pure endoscopic pituitary surgery. These patients should carefully be assessed preoperatively and potential preemptive surgical strategies should be taken into consideration to avoid complications.
This study did not require written informed consent due to its non-invasive and retrospective design.
Received: 09 February 2023
Accepted: 27 March 2023
Accepted Manuscript online:
29 March 2023
Article published online:
13 April 2023
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