CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Horm Metab Res 2024; 56(01): 99-106
DOI: 10.1055/a-2172-7228

Salt and Aldosterone – Reciprocal and Combined Effects in Preclinical Models and Humans

Li Chen
1   Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, LMU Klinikum, LMU München, München, Germany
Christian Adolf
1   Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, LMU Klinikum, LMU München, München, Germany
Martin Reincke
1   Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, LMU Klinikum, LMU München, München, Germany
Holger Schneider
1   Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, LMU Klinikum, LMU München, München, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Funding Information This work was supported by the Else Kröner-Fresenius Stiftung in support of the German Conn’s Registry-Else-Kröner Hyperaldosteronism Registry (2013_A182, 2015_A171 and 2019_A104 to MR), the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 694913 to MR), by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the CRC/Transregio 205/2, (project No. 314061271) “The Adrenal: Central Relay in Health and Disease” to CA, HS, and MR and within the Clinician Scientist Program In Vascular MEdicine (PRIME) MA 2186/14-1 to HS, by the Förderprogramm für Forschung und Lehre (FöFoLe) Reg.-Nr 1051 to CA and by grants from the China Scholarship Council(CSC) — 202106940008 to LC.


Primary aldosteronism is an endocrine disorder caused by excessive production of aldosterone by the adrenal glands, and is recognized as the most important cause of endocrine hypertension. With specific therapy, this type of hypertension is potentially curable. In the general population, high salt intake increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases like stroke. In populations with aldosterone excess, observational and experimental data suggest that aldosterone-induced organ damage requires a combination of high dietary salt intake and high plasma aldosterone, i.e., plasma aldosterone levels inappropriately high for salt status. Therefore, understanding the relationship between plasma aldosterone levels and dietary salt intake and the nature of their combined effects is crucial for developing effective prevention and treatment strategies. In this review, we present an update on findings about primary aldosteronism and salt intake and the underlying mechanisms governing their interaction.

Publication History

Received: 29 June 2023

Accepted after revision: 03 September 2023

Accepted Manuscript online:
08 September 2023

Article published online:
27 October 2023

© 2023. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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