CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Ultrasound Int Open 2024; 10: a22439625
DOI: 10.1055/a-2243-9625
Original Article

Neurosonology Survey in Europe and Beyond

Claudio Baracchini
1   Stroke Center and Neurosonology Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, Padua University Hospital, Padova, Italy (Ringgold ID: RIN60242)
Elsa Azevedo
2   Neurology, Centro Hospitalar de Sao Joao EPE, Porto, Portugal (Ringgold ID: RIN285211)
Uwe Walter
3   Department of Neurology, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock, Germany
João Sargento-Freitas
4   Department of Neurology, Universidade de Coimbra Faculdade de Medicina, Coimbra, Portugal (Ringgold ID: RIN37830)
Branko Malojcic
5   Neurology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb School of Medicine, Croatia, Zagreb, Croatia
for the Council of Nations of the European Society of Neurosonology and Cerebral Hemodynamics (ESNCH) › Author Affiliations


Purpose To provide an overview on education, training, practice requirements, and fields of application of neurosonology in Europe and beyond.

Materials and Methods National representatives and experts in neurosonology were surveyed regarding neurosonology requirements and practice in their countries. Descriptive statistics were used to report the data.

Results Between February 1 and March 31, 2023, 42/46 (91.3%) national representatives responded to our questionnaire and the completion rate was 100%. Most countries (71.4%) offer a neurosonology training program during neurology residency, but it is part of the undergraduate medical program only in 30.9%. National certification is available in 47.6% of the countries surveyed and most countries (76.2%) require certification to practice. In 50% of the countries, candidates are assessed by a board examination, while in 26.2% they just need to document their practice. There is no formal accreditation of neurosonology centers in 78.6% of the countries surveyed. Only a few require certified personnel and appropriate equipment. Adequate teaching and research activities are only rarely necessary elements for laboratory accreditation.

Conclusion Our results indicate that there is a substantial need for transnational harmonization of neurosonological standards to guarantee uniformity and quality of performance. This survey will also provide guidance to promote an international accrediting council and create a quality-controlled laboratory network for implementing neurosonology in clinical trials.

Publication History

Received: 07 November 2023

Accepted: 07 January 2024

Article published online:
23 February 2024

© 2024. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

Bibliographical Record
Claudio Baracchini, Elsa Azevedo, Uwe Walter, João Sargento-Freitas, Branko Malojcic. Neurosonology Survey in Europe and Beyond. Ultrasound Int Open 2024; 10: a22439625.
DOI: 10.1055/a-2243-9625
  • References

  • 1 Pantano P, Chollet F, Paulson O. et al. European Federation of Neurological Societies Task Force of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe. EFNS Task Force on Teaching of Neuroimaging in Neurology Curricula in Europe: present status and recommendations for the future. Eur J Neurol 2001; 8: 541-548 DOI: 10.1046/j.1468-1331.2001.00295.x.
  • 2 Schlachetzki F, Nedelmann M, Poppert H. et al. Neurosonological Diagnosis in the Acute Phase of Stroke is a Sign of Qualified Care. Neurology International Open 2017; 01: E182-E188
  • 3 Tawfik EA, Cartwright MS, Grimm A. et al. Guidelines for neuromuscular ultrasound training. Muscle Nerve 2019; 60: 361-366 DOI: 10.1002/mus.26642.
  • 4 Robba C, Poole D, Citerio G. et al. Consensus on brain ultrasonography in critical care group. Brain Ultrasonography Consensus on Skill Recommendations and Competence Levels Within the Critical Care Setting. Neurocrit Care 2020; 32: 502-511 DOI: 10.1007/s12028-019-00766-9.
  • 5 Valaikiene J, Schlachetzki F, Azevedo E. et al. Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Neurology – Report of the EAN SPN/ESNCH/ERcNsono Neuro-POCUS Working Group. Ultraschall in Med 2022; 43: 354-366 DOI: 10.1055/a-1816-8548.
  • 6 Scholtz LC, Rosenberg J, Robbins MS. et al. Ultrasonography in neurology: A comprehensive analysis and review. J Neuroimaging 2023; 33: 511-520 DOI: 10.1111/jon.13124.
  • 7 Tawfik EA, Cartwright MS, Grimm A. et al. Neuromuscular ultrasound competency assessment: Consensus-based survey. Muscle Nerve 2021; 63: 651-656 DOI: 10.1002/mus.27163.
  • 8 European Society of Neurosonology and Cerebral Hemodynamics (ESNCH) and Neurosonology Specialty Group of the World Federation of Neurology (NSG/WFN). International Certification in Neurosonology (ESNCH, NSG/WFN) accessed on July 17 2023
  • 9 Celebi N, Griewatz J, Malek NP. et al. Development and implementation of a comprehensive ultrasound curriculum for undergraduate medical students – a feasibility study. BMC Med Educ 2019; 19: 170 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-019-1611-1.
  • 10 Hoppmann RA, Mladenovic J, Melniker L. et al. International consensus conference recommendations on ultrasound education for undergraduate medical students. Ultrasound J 2022; 14: 31 DOI: 10.1186/s13089-022-00279-1.
  • 11 Recker F, Schäfer VS, Holzgreve W. et al. Development and implementation of a comprehensive ultrasound curriculum for medical students: The Bonn internship point-of-care-ultrasound curriculum (BI-POCUS). Front Med (Lausanne) 2023; 10: 1072326 DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2023.1072326.
  • 12 Piel FB, Tatem AJ, Huang Z. et al. Global migration and the changing distribution of sickle haemoglobin: a quantitative study of temporal trends between 1960 and 2000. Lancet Glob Health 2014; 2: e80-e89 DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(13)70150-5.