DOI: 10.1055/a-2349-1256
Original Article

Association between Cognitive Abilities before the Age of 3 Years and Those at Least 1 Year Later in Children with Developmental Delay

Kwangohk Jun
1   Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea
Donghwi Park
2   Seoul Spine Rehabilitation Clinic, Ulsan-si, Korea
Hyoshin Eo
1   Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea
Seongho Woo
1   Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea
Won Mo Koo
1   Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea
Jong Min Kim
1   Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea
Byung Joo Lee
1   Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea
Min Cheol Chang
3   Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea
› Author Affiliations
Funding This work was supported by the 2024 Yeungnam University Research Grant.


Objective This study investigated whether early cognitive assessment in children with developmental delay (DD) predicts cognitive development. We investigated the correlation between cognitive and language development in children with DD, cerebral palsy (CP), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Methods Data were collected from children diagnosed with DD who visited the hospital between 2015 and 2023. The assessments included the Korean Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Second Edition (K-BSID-II) and the Korean Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence Fourth Edition (K-WPPSI-IV). Language development was evaluated using the Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI) and Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES). The statistical analysis involved a correlation analysis.

Results Among 95 children in the study, a significant correlation was discovered between early cognitive assessments (the Mental Developmental Index from the K-BSID-II) and later cognitive development (the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient from the K-WPPSI-IV) in the DD and CP groups, but not in the ASD group. The DD and CP groups exhibited significant correlations in language development between the SELSI and PRES, whereas the ASD group did not.

Conclusion Early cognitive assessments can predict later cognitive development in children with DD and CP, but not in those with ASD, according to this study. There was a strong correlation between language and cognitive development in the DD and CP groups, highlighting the importance of early intervention and assessment for these children. Further investigation is necessary to address these limitations and refine demographic data.

Publication History

Received: 21 March 2024

Accepted: 13 June 2024

Accepted Manuscript online:
19 June 2024

Article published online:
11 July 2024

© 2024. Thieme. All rights reserved.

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