Minim Invasive Neurosurg 2010; 53(1): 44-46
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1246169
Technical Note

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Neuroendoscopic Training: Presentation of a New Real Simulator

S. Zymberg1 , F. Vaz-Guimarães Filho1 , M. Lyra2
  • 1Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Paulista School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2Department of Gynecology, Federal University of Pernambuco, Pernambuco, Brazil
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
07 April 2010 (online)


Introduction: There are several models in use in surgical training such as cadaveric, synthetic and animal models as well as virtual reality simulators. Despite having different models for training, unfortunately, financial, technical and operational obstacles more often limit their application in developing countries. The authors have worked out a new synthetic model that could provide a reliable neuroendoscopic training method. The main goal of this study is to introduce the model and discuss relevant data regarding its use.

Description of the model: The model is made from a synthetic thermo-retractile and thermo-sensible rubber called Neoderma®. It can be used for neuroendoscopic, rhinological and endonasal skull base surgical training. Recorded videos showed a great similarity between the model and the human brain. Thirty-seven neurosurgeons were presented to the model. All of them considered it extremely useful.

This model does not need any special techniques for maintenance or conservation. After training, it can be easily cleaned and stored. Furthermore, it is atoxic and easy to use.

Discussion: A well-designed and realistic training model can help neurosurgeons to improve gradually their skills with no risks. Use of all instruments is strongly recommended. They also hope that, in the future, the model will become a standard simulator able to assist in the training of neurosurgeons.


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S. Zymberg

Department of Neurology and

Neurosurgery Paulista School of

Medicine Federal University of

São Paulo

Rua Diogo de Faria 1202

CJ 31 São Paulo

São Paulo 04037-001


Phone: +55/11/5549 6834

Fax: +55/11/5549 6834