Facial plast Surg 2010; 26(3): 266-273
DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1254332
© Thieme Medical Publishers

Radiofrequency (GFX™) Ablation for the Reduction of Glabellar Frowning

James Newman1
  • 1Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, California
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
03 June 2010 (online)


A new minimally invasive procedure is described for the reduction of glabellar frowning. Glabellar furrow relaxation or GFXTM utilizes bipolar radiofrequency energy targeted at peripheral motor nerve fibers to the depressor muscles of the forehead. This procedure is a useful adjunct in forehead rejuvenation when performed concomitantly with blepharoplasty or forehead lifting in a surgical setting. With proper training the procedure can be performed under local anesthesia in the office setting to produce very natural results. The relevant anatomy and technique is described here in detail because this represents new knowledge in facial plastic surgery. A cohort of patients has been studied for over 12 months demonstrating the efficacy of the relaxation that can be achieved with the procedure. The GFX procedure offers the patients and surgeons an alternative treatment to botulinum toxin A when longer lasting relaxation of the forehead depressor muscles is desired.