Parotid Gland Trauma
17 November 2010 (online)
Parotid trauma can lead to both short and long-term complications such as bleeding, infection, facial nerve injury, sialocele, and salivary fistula, resulting in pain and disfigurement. Facial injuries inferior to a line extended from the tragus to the upper lip should raise concern for parotid injury. These injuries can be stratified into three regions as they relate to the masseter muscle. Injuries posing the greatest risk of damage to Stensen's duct include those anterior to the posterior border of the masseter and necessitate exploration. When the duct is disrupted, emphasis should be placed on primary repair or re-creation of the papilla; however, proximal ductal lacerations can be treated by ligation of the proximal segment. Isolated parenchymal injury can be treated with more conservative means. Sialocele and salivary fistula can frequently be managed nonoperatively with antibiotics, pressure dressings, and serial aspiration. Anticholinergic medications and the injection of botulinum toxin represent additional measures before resorting to surgical therapies such as tympanic neurectomy or parotidectomy.
Parotid gland - wounds - penetrating injuries - complications - Stensen's duct injury