Int J Sports Med 2011; 32(10): 776-780
DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1277214
Training & Testing

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Concurrent Training and Pulmonary Function in Smokers

I. Shaw1 , B. S. Shaw2 , G. A. Brown3
  • 1Monash South Africa, Office of the Deputy Pro Vice-Chancellor, Ruimsig, South Africa
  • 2Tshwane University of Technology, Department of Sport, Rehabilitation and Dental Sciences, Pretoria, South Africa
  • 3University of Nebraska at Kearney, Human Performance Laboratory, HPERLS Department, Kearney, United States
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision April 14, 2011

Publication Date:
26 May 2011 (online)


This study compared the effects of aerobic, resistance and concurrent aerobic and resistance training on pulmonary function and cardiorespiratory endurance in at-risk smokers. 50 sedentary, male smokers with pulmonary function impairments at risk for developing chronic lung diseases were randomly assigned to an aerobic (AerG;n=12), resistance (ResG;n=13), concurrent (ConG;n=13) or non-exercising control (NexG;n=12) group for 16 weeks. AerG subjects performed 45 min of aerobic exercise at 60%HRmax, ResG subjects performed 8 resistance exercises at 60%1-RM for 3 sets, 15 repetitions while ConG subjects performed both aerobic and resistance exercises. ANOVA revealed no significant difference between the groups in their pre-/post-test changes for FEV1/FVC ratio (AerG:−4.13%; ResG:−2.13%; ConG:−0.56%); FEF-50 (AerG:−4.59%; ResG:−7.62%; ConG:5.76%), FEF-75 (AerG:−2.36%; ResG:−7.62%; ConG:10.71%) and FEF 25–75 (AerG:−3.53%; ResG:−6.43%; ConG:7.63%). Significant differences were found between the groups in their pre-/post-test changes for FVC (AerG:8.05%; ResG:7.22%; ConG:11.55%), FEV1 (Aer:9.60%;ResG:5.13%; ConG:12.10%), PEF (AerG: 11.29%; ResG:7.49%; ConG:20.18%), PIF (AerG:24.80%; ResG:19.41%; ConG:28.15%), IVC (AerG: 9.04%; ResG: 6.21%; ConG:16.35%), FEF-25 (AerG:5.88%; ResG:5.37%; ConG:11.88%) and cardiorespiratory fitness (AerG:25.44%; ResG:11.59%; ConG:22.83%). Post-hoc analysis revealed concurrent and aerobic training were equally effective at improving PIF and cardiorespiratory fitness with concurrent training most effective at improving FVC, FEV1, PEF, IVC and FEF-25. This suggests synergy between aerobic and resistance exercise in preventing or reducing the detrimental effects of smoking while gaining the unique benefits of each mode of exercise.


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Prof. Brandon S. ShawPhD 

Tshwane University of


Department of Sport,

Rehabilitation and Dental


Pvt. Bag X680

0001 Pretoria

South Africa

Phone: +27/73/664 00 22

Fax: + 27/086/612 89 08