Int J Angiol 2007; 16(2): 36
DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1278244
Review Article

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Peripheral arterial disease: Epidemiology, natural history, diagnosis and treatment

Gurbir Dhaliwal, Debabrata Mukherjee
  • Gill Heart Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
27 April 2011 (online)


Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects approximately 10% of the American population, with 30% to 40% of these patients presenting with claudication symptoms. The prevalence of PAD increases with age and the number of vascular risk factors. More importantly, it is a marker of atherosclerotic disease burden, and is associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular and cere- brovascular causes. There have been recent advances in noninvasive imaging, endovascular approaches for revascularization, and aggressive risk factor management for prevention of cardiac and cere- brovascular complications in PAD. There is now a trend toward aggressive risk factor modification and endovascular revascularization for most patients, with surgical interventions reserved for certain situations only. In the present article, a systematic review is presented, focusing on the key aspects of the disease epidemiology, presentation, natural history, diagnosis and available management options.