Int J Sports Med 2011; 32(10): 765-770
DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1279772
Training & Testing

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

V˙O2 Kinetics in 200-m Race-Pace Front Crawl Swimming

A. C. Sousa1 , P. Figueiredo1 , N. L. Oliveira2 , J. Oliveira2 , A. J. Silva3 , K. L. Keskinen4 , F. A. Rodríguez5 , L. J. Machado1 , J. P. Vilas-Boas1 , R. J. Fernandes1
  • 1Faculty of Sport, Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, University of Porto, Portugal
  • 2Faculty of Sport, Centre of Research in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, University of Porto, Portugal
  • 3Sports, Research Centre in Sport, Health and Human Development, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
  • 4Finnish Society of Sport Sciences, Helsinki, Finland
  • 5Institut Nacional d’Educació Física de Catalunya, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision May 02, 2011

Publication Date:
12 September 2011 (online)


Studies that aim to characterize oxygen uptake kinetics in efforts above maximal oxygen consumption intensity are scarce. Our aim was to analyze the oxygen kinetics in a maximal 200-m front crawl, all measurements being conducted in swimming pool conditions. 10 high-level male swimmers performed a maximal 200-m bout and oxygen uptake was directly measured through breath-by-breath gas analysis. Mean (±SD) peak oxygen uptake was 68.58 (±5.79)−1.min−1, evidencing a fast component phase. As expected, peak oxygen uptake presented a direct relationship with mean swimming speed of the first 50-m lap and with the 200-m effort, and was also correlated with the amplitude of the fast component (r=0.75, r=0.72, r=0.73, p<0.05, respectively). The observed mean amplitude value was higher than those observed in the literature for other exercise intensity domains. However, the time for its onset, as well as the duration for attaining the steady state, was shorter, as the peak oxygen uptake was not correlated with these 2 components. Moreover, as previously described for swimming at high intensities, the slow component phenomenon was not observed. Aerobic metabolic pathway accounted for 78.6%, confirming the high aerobic contribution in middle distance swimming events.


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Prof. Ricardo J. FernandesPhD 

University of Porto

Faculty of Sport


Rua Dr. Plácido Costa 91

Porto 4200


Phone: +351/22/5074 763

Fax: +351/22/5500 687