Facial plast Surg 2011; 27(4): 346-357
DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1283053
© Thieme Medical Publishers

Management of Facial Paralysis in the 21st Century

Jason Y.K. Chan1 , Patrick J. Byrne1
  • 1Division of Facial Plastics and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
26 July 2011 (online)


Facial paralysis is a clinical entity associated with significant morbidity, which has a treatment paradigm that is continually evolving. Surgical management of the paralyzed face poses significant challenges to achieve the goal of returning patients to their premorbid states. Here we attempt to review the advances in facial reanimation, in particular with regards to chronic facial paralysis. These include recent developments in static and dynamic rehabilitation including advances like artificial muscles for eyelid reconstruction, dynamic muscle transfer for the eye, and orthodromic temporalis tendon transfer.