Facial plast Surg 2011; 27(6): 529-539
DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1298786
© Thieme Medical Publishers

Botulinum Toxin: Clinical Techniques, Applications, and Complications

Scott Stephan1 , Tom D. Wang1
  • 1Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
28 December 2011 (online)

ABSTRACT

This article outlines practice routines, clinical techniques, applications, and complications of botulinum toxin type A treatment of mimetic facial and neck muscles. Detailed descriptions are provided for each clinical indication that maximize the treatment of the intended muscle groups while minimizing potential complications.