Int J Sports Med 2013; 34(11): 997-1002
DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1334966
Orthopedics & Biomechanics
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Hip and Knee Kinematics are Associated with Pain and Self-reported Functional Status in Males and Females with Patellofemoral Pain

T. H. Nakagawa
1   Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil
F. V. Serrão
1   Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil
C. D. Maciel
2   Electrical Engineering, University of São Paulo, Brazil
C. M. Powers
3   Jacquelin Perry Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Research Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision 04 February 2013

Publication Date:
14 June 2013 (online)


Altered hip and knee kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes may increase patellofemoral joint stress and contribute to the development of patellofemoral pain. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association among hip and knee kinematics, pain, and self-reported functional status in males and females with patellofemoral pain. 20 males and 20 females with patellofemoral pain participated in this study. 3-dimensional hip and knee kinematics were quantified while performing a step-down task. A visual analogue scale was used to evaluate usual knee pain. The anterior knee pain scale was used to evaluate the knee functional score. For both groups combined, greater usual pain was associated with greater peak hip adduction, hip internal rotation and knee abduction (r=0.54–0.57, P<0.001). Also, modest to low correlations (r=−0.48 to − 0.37, P=0.03–0.08) were found among hip and knee kinematics and functional score. Stepwise regression revealed that peak hip internal rotation and hip adduction were significant predictors of pain, while peak hip adduction was the only predictor of function. Greater hip adduction, hip internal rotation and knee abduction are associated with higher levels of pain and reduced function in males and females with patellofemoral pain.

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