Int J Sports Med 2013; 34(11): 1007-1014
DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1337942
Orthopedics & Biomechanics
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Optimum Load in Various Vertical Jumps Support the Maximum Dynamic Output Hypothesis

D. Suzovic
1   Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, The Research Center, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
G. Markovic
2   School of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
M. Pasic
1   Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, The Research Center, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
S. Jaric
3   Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision 09 February 2013

Publication Date:
13 May 2013 (online)


The aim was to generalize the maximum dynamic output (MDO) hypothesis [i. e., the muscle power output in vertical jumps (VJ) is maximized when loaded with one’s own body mass] to variety of VJ. We hypothesized that the subjects’ own body (a) would be the optimal load for maximizing the power output (i. e., the no-load condition) and also (b) reveal the maximum benefits of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC). 13 participants performed the maximum squat and various counter-movement jumps when loaded by approximately constant external force ranging from −40% to  + 40% of their body weight (BW). Regarding the first hypothesis, the differences in both the peak and mean power recorded under different load magnitudes revealed maxima close to no-load condition (i. e., from −3% BW to  + 8% BW; R2=0.65–0.96; all P<0.01). Regarding the second hypothesis, the differences in performance between VJ executed with and without SSC also revealed maxima close to no-load conditions (0–2% BW), while the same differences in the power output were observed under relatively low positive loads (14–25% BW; R2=0.56–0.95; all P<0.01). The findings support the concept that maximal power output occurs close to one’s own body mass during VJ with and without SSC, thereby providing additional support to MDO hypothesis.

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