Int J Sports Med 2014; 35(03): 232-237
DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1345179
Orthopedics & Biomechanics
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Psychological Influences Predict Recovery Following Exercise Induced Shoulder Pain

J. Parr
1  Comprehensive Center for Pain Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States
P. Borsa
2  Applied Physiology & Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States
R. Fillingim
3  Community Dentistry and Behavioral Science, University of Florida, ­Gainesville, United States
K. Kaiser
4  Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
M. D. Tillman
5  Kinesiology and Health Promotion, Troy University, Troy, AL United States
T. M. Manini
6  Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida, Florida, United States
C. Gregory
7  Health Sciences and Research, Medical University of South Carolina, ­Charleston, United States
S. George
8  Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision 15 April 2013

Publication Date:
10 September 2013 (online)


Predicting recovery following muscle injury can be difficult because it involves consideration of multiple factors. Our objective was to determine if psychological factors, sex, and peak pain and disability ratings could be predictive of delayed recovery following induced muscle injury. Healthy untrained volunteers (n=126; M:F 51:75) underwent a concentric/eccentric isokinetic exercise protocol on their dominant shoulder to induce fatigue, with individuals who reported pain (>0/10) at 96 h being classified as “not recovered”. Individuals experiencing pain at 48 h were more likely not to be recovered (O.R.=1.62, p<0.001). Additionally, individuals with higher scores in pain catastrophizing at 48 h were more likely to experience pain at 96 h (O.R.=1.06, p<0.001). Pain duration (in days) was associated with pain scores at 48 h (β=0.385, p<0.001) and baseline anxiety (β=0.220, p=0.007). Fear of movement/re-injury at 96 h was found to be associated with pain catastrophizing at 48 h (β=0.537, p<0.001) and baseline levels of fear of pain (β=0.217, p=0.004). This study provides preliminary evidence that higher pain levels and pain catastrophizing following acute muscle injury are associated with poor recovery, higher fear of movement/re-injury and longer pain duration.