Ultrasound of the Fetal Veins Part 1: The Intrahepatic Venous System
The examination of the intrahepatic fetal veins includes the evaluation of the umbilical vein, the portal venous system, the ductus venosus, the hepatic veins and the inferior vena cava.
The complex anatomy of the afferent and efferent veins is explained using schemes, 2 D grayscale, color Doppler and 3 D color Doppler images.
Typical abnormal findings are demonstrated and include the right umbilical vein, umbilical vein varix, different forms of agenesis of the ductus venosus and other rare intrahepatic vascular anomalies.
The spectral Doppler examination of the veins focused mainly on the assessment of the ductus venosus flow in fetuses with increased right atrial preload, in screening for aneuploidies in early gestation, in cardiac anomalies as well as in fetuses with severe growth restriction.