Facial plast Surg 2014; 30(02): 145-151
DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1371900
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Contemporary Facial Reanimation

Prabhat K. Bhama1, Tessa A. Hadlock1
  • 1Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School/Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Facial Nerve Center, Boston, Massachusetts
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
08 May 2014 (online)


The facial nerve is the most commonly paralyzed nerve in the human body. Facial paralysis affects aesthetic appearance, and it has a profound effect on function and quality of life. Management of patients with facial paralysis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists, and physical therapists. Regardless of etiology, patients with facial paralysis should be evaluated systematically, with initial efforts focused upon establishing proper diagnosis. Management should proceed with attention to facial zones, including the brow and periocular region, the midface and oral commissure, the lower lip and chin, and the neck. To effectively compare contemporary facial reanimation strategies, it is essential to employ objective intake assessment methods, and standard reassessment schemas during the entire management period.