Facial plast Surg 2014; 30(02): 093-100
DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1371905
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Global Facial Beauty: Approaching a Unified Aesthetic Ideal

Noah B. Sands1, Peter A. Adamson1
  • 1Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
08 May 2014 (online)


Recognition of facial beauty is both inborn and learned through social discourses and exposures. Demographic shifts across the globe, in addition to cross-cultural interactions that typify 21st century globalization in virtually all industries, comprise major active evolutionary forces that reshape our individual notions of facial beauty. This article highlights the changing perceptions of beauty, while defining and distinguishing natural beauty and artificial beauty.