Int J Sports Med 2014; 35(14): 1161-1169
DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1383597
Training & Testing
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Oxygen Uptake, Muscle Activity and Ground Reaction Force during Water Aerobic Exercises

C. L. Alberton
1   School of Physical Education, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil
S. S. Pinto
1   School of Physical Education, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil
E. L. Cadore
2   School of Physical ­Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
M. P. Tartaruga
3   School of Physical Education, Midwest State University of Parana, Guarapuava, Brazil
A. C. Kanitz
2   School of Physical ­Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
A. H. Antunes
2   School of Physical ­Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
P. Finatto
2   School of Physical ­Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
L. F. M. Kruel
2   School of Physical ­Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision 21 October 2013

Publication Date:
21 August 2014 (online)


This study aimed to compare the oxygen uptake (VO2), the muscle activity of lower limbs, and the vertical ground reaction force (V-GRF) of women performing water aerobic exercises at different intensities. 12 young women performed the experimental protocol, which consisted of 3 water exercises (stationary running [SR], frontal kick [FK] and cross country skiing [CCS]) at 3 intensities (first and second ventilatory thresholds and maximum effort). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used. Regarding VO2, different responses between intensities (p<0.001) were found, and values between exercises were similar. For electromyographic activity (EMG), differences between intensities for all muscles (p<0.001) were found. Greater EMG signals were observed in the FK compared to SR for rectus femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles (p<0.05). Regarding V-GRF, there was an increase in the V-GRF at greater intensities compared to the first ventilatory threshold (p=0.001). In addition, lower values were found during CCS compared to the SR and FK exercises (p<0.001). Thus, greater cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses were observed with increasing intensity. Exercises such as CCS could be used to attenuate the V-GRF; if the purpose is to reduce the muscular activity of lower limbs at a specific intensity, SR could be recommended.

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