Int J Sports Med 2015; 36(03): 197-203
DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1384543
Physiology & Biochemistry
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Instrument-assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization: Effects on the Properties of Human Plantar Flexors

J. P. Vardiman
1   Health, Sport and Exercise Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
J. Siedlik
1   Health, Sport and Exercise Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
T. Herda
1   Health, Sport and Exercise Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
W. Hawkins
1   Health, Sport and Exercise Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
M. Cooper
2   Biomedical Science, University Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, United States
Z. A. Graham
1   Health, Sport and Exercise Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
J. Deckert
1   Health, Sport and Exercise Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
P. Gallagher
1   Health, Sport and Exercise Science, University of Kansas, Lawrence, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision 28 May 2014

Publication Date:
27 October 2014 (online)


The effect of instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (ISTM) on passive properties and inflammation in human skeletal muscle has not been evaluated. Passive properties of muscle, inflammatory myokines and subjective reporting of functional ability were used to identify the effects of ISTM on the plantar flexors. 11 healthy men were measured for passive musculotendinous stiffness (MTS), passive range of motion (PROM), passive resistive torque (PASTQ) and maximum voluntary contraction peak torque (MVCPT) for plantar flexor muscles of the lower leg. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured from muscle biopsies from the gastrocnemius, and subjective measurements of functional ability were taken using the perception of functional ability questionnaire (PFAQ). MTS, PROM, PRT and MVCPT were measured in the treatment leg (TL) and control leg (CL) before, immediately after, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h following IASTM. Biopsies for IL-6 and TNF-α and PFAQ responses were collected before as well as 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after IASTM. There were no significant differences in MTS, PROM, PASTQ, MVCPT, IL-6 and TNF-α between the TL or CL. A significant decrease in the perception of function and a significant increase in pain for the TL were found following IASTM.

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