Facial plast Surg 2014; 30(05): 528-536
DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1394098
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Imaging of the Midfacial and Orbital Trauma

Johannes Wikner1, Björn Riecke1, Alexander Gröbe1, Max Heiland1, Henning Hanken1
  • 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
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Publication History

Publication Date:
14 November 2014 (online)


The severity of midfacial and orbital injuries depends on the one hand on cause, force vector, load point, or area and on the other hand on the bony and soft tissue resistance as well as individual anatomy. These variables result in a variety of possible injuries of the midfacial and orbital complex. The time critical choice of an adequate imaging modality of these injuries is influenced by the possible severity of concomitant injuries. Besides the confirmation of a clinical diagnosis, the need for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging for preoperative planning of facial reconstruction using intraoperative navigation has become more and more important in the past years. To achieve optimal functional and esthetic outcomes, the anatomical complexity of the midface has to be addressed and the adequate imaging modality has to be chosen keeping the upcoming surgical treatment in mind. The current imaging modalities for midfacial and orbital trauma are presented and critically evaluated depending on the indications. Furthermore, new strategies to support surgeons in achieving best possible midfacial reconstructions are discussed. An algorithm to choose the adequate imaging modality in midfacial and orbital traumatology is provided.


J. W. and H. H. are consultants. B. R. and A. G. are the senior consultants. M. H. is the head of department.