Facial plast Surg 2015; 31(02): 134-139
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1549044
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Gracilis Microneurovascular Transfer for Facial Paralysis

Peter C. Revenaugh
Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois
Patrick J. Byrne
Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
08 May 2015 (online)


Facial nerve dysfunction occurs in varying degrees of severity due to several causes, and leads to asymmetric or absent facial movements. Regardless of the etiology, facial nerve dysfunction can be functionally and psychologically devastating. Many techniques to restore facial symmetry both at rest and with motion have been pursued throughout history. Within the past 30 years, free muscle microneurovascular transfer techniques have been developed to provide symmetric motion to the face. The aim of this article is to describe one of the most common and reliable techniques to restore midface mobility, namely, gracilis microneurovascular transfer.