Int J Sports Med 2015; 36(14): 1125-1133
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1555854
Physiology & Biochemistry
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Alterations in Body Fluid Balance During Fin Swimming in 29°C Water in a Population of Special Forces Divers

O. Castagna
1   Military Biomedical Research Institute (IRBA), Underwater Research Team (ERRSO), Toulon Cedex, France
6   The Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, LAMHESS (EA 6309) UFR STAPS de Toulon, France
A. V. Desruelle
2   Military Biomedical Research Institute (IRBA), Underwater Research Team (ERRSO), Toulon, France
J.-E. Blatteau
3   Department of Hyperbaric and Diving Medicine, Ste Anne’s Military Hospital, Toulon Armées, France
B. Schmid
4   Military Biomedical Research Institute (IRBA), Underwater Research Team (ERRSO), Toulon Armées, France
G. Dumoulin
5   Université de Franche-comte, Besancon, France
J. Regnard
5   Université de Franche-comte, Besancon, France
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision 01 June 2015

Publication Date:
30 September 2015 (online)


Highly trained “combat swimmers” encounter physiological difficulties when performing missions in warm water. The aim of this study was to assess the respective roles of immersion and physical activity in perturbing fluid balance of military divers on duty in warm water. 12 trained divers performed 2 dives each (2 h, 3 m depth) in fresh water at 29°C. Divers either remained Static or swam continuously (Fin) during the dive. In the Fin condition, oxygen consumption and heart rate were 2-fold greater than during the Static dive. Core and skin temperatures were also higher (Fin: 38.5±0.4°C and 36.2±0.3°C and Static: 37.2±0.3°C and 34.3±0.3°C; respectively p=0.0002 and p=0.0003). During the Fin dive, the average mass loss was 989 g (39% urine loss, 41% sweating and 20% insensible water loss and blood sampling); Static divers lost 720 g (84% urine loss, 2% sweating and 14% insensible water loss and blood sampling) (p=0.003). In the Fin condition, a greater decrease in total body mass and greater sweating occurred, without effects on circulating renin and aldosterone concentrations; diuresis was reduced, and plasma volume decreased more than in the Static condition.

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