Facial plast Surg 2015; 31(04): 351-356
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1563692
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Maxillofacial Fractures: Midface and Internal Orbit—Part I: Classification and Assessment

Gerson Mast1, Michael Ehrenfeld1, Carl-Peter Cornelius1, Ralph Litschel2, Abel-Jan Tasman2
  • 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
  • 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cantonal Hospital, St. Gallen, Switzerland
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Publication History

Publication Date:
15 September 2015 (online)


Fractures of the midface and internal orbit occur isolated or in combination with other injuries. Frequently, the patients are first seen in emergency rooms responsible for the coordination of initial diagnostic procedures, followed by the transfer to specialties for further treatment. It is, therefore, important for all physicians treating facial trauma patients to understand the basic principles of injuries to the midface. Thus, this article aims to describe the anatomy and the current classification systems in use, the related clinical symptoms, and the essential diagnostic measures to obtain precise information about the injury pattern.