Facial plast Surg 2015; 31(04): 351-356
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1563692
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Maxillofacial Fractures: Midface and Internal Orbit—Part I: Classification and Assessment

Gerson Mast
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
,
Michael Ehrenfeld
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
,
Carl-Peter Cornelius
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, Germany
,
Ralph Litschel
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cantonal Hospital, St. Gallen, Switzerland
,
Abel-Jan Tasman
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cantonal Hospital, St. Gallen, Switzerland
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
15 September 2015 (online)

Abstract

Fractures of the midface and internal orbit occur isolated or in combination with other injuries. Frequently, the patients are first seen in emergency rooms responsible for the coordination of initial diagnostic procedures, followed by the transfer to specialties for further treatment. It is, therefore, important for all physicians treating facial trauma patients to understand the basic principles of injuries to the midface. Thus, this article aims to describe the anatomy and the current classification systems in use, the related clinical symptoms, and the essential diagnostic measures to obtain precise information about the injury pattern.