Semin intervent Radiol 2015; 32(04): C1-C6
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1566267
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Post-Test Questions

Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
10 November 2015 (online)

Article 1 (335–338)

  1. Thermal ablation devices include of all of the following EXCEPT:

    • Microwave ablation

    • Radiofrequency ablation

    • Cryoablation

    • Alcohol ablation

  2. Radiofrequency ablation is a:

    • Current based technology

    • Field based technology

    • Chemical ablation method

    • Transarterial embolization technique

  3. What unique properties allow The EmprintTM Ablation System to produce reliable large spherical zones of ablation?

    • Remote control

    • Current based technology

    • Freezing based technology

    • Wavelength control, field control, and thermal control

    Article 2 (339–342)

  4. The new CO2 delivery system improves upon previous systems by:

    • Reducing size of the regulator

    • Reducing the size of the tank

    • Simplifying use

    • Eliminating assembly

    • All of the above

  5. Carbon dioxide as an imaging agent is most hampered by:

    • Poor imaging

    • No significant advantages

    • Poor delivery systems

    • Cost

    • Lack of availability

  6. The most important attribute of a carbon dioxide delivery system:

    • Size

    • Preventing room air contamination

    • Easy access

    • Ability to give iodinated contrast

    • Large syringes

    Article 3 (343–348)

  7. The hydrogel-coated coils reach full expansion by contact with

    • Room air

    • Warm saline

    • Dextrose

    • Blood

    • None of the above

  8. Ideal applications for the hydrogel-coated coils include all of the following except:

    • High flow AV malformations

    • High flow AV fistulas

    • Visceral aneurysms

    • Endoleaks

    • Traumatic pseudoaneurysms

  9. Regarding “coil compaction”:

    • It is benefi cial as it ensures proper vessel occlusion

    • Is the mechanism of action of the hydrogel-coated coils

    • Is a delayed phenomenon seen with fi bered coils

    • May result in recanalization of the coiled area

    • Answers c and d are correct

    Article 4 (349–355)

  10. IRE devices have full FDA approval for ablations in which organ systems?

    • Liver

    • Pancreas

    • Lung

    • Prostate

    • None of the above

  11. All of the following are technical considerations when using IRE EXCEPT:

    • The generator delivers high voltage, low energy DC current

    • A minimum of 2 monopolar probes are required to create a treatment zone

    • The energy is delivered between two probes at a time

    • Software incorporated into the system helps to determine the number of probes needed

    • All of the above are technical considerations when using IRE

  12. Which of the following are contraindications to using IRE?

    • A history of cardiac arrhythmias

    • A pacemaker dependent patient

    • Varices interfering with percutaneous access

    • Overlying colon

    • All of the above

    Article 5 (356–369)

  13. Which of the AVP plugs requires a longer landing zone?

    • AVP I

    • AVP II

    • AVP III

    • AVP IV

  14. After embolization of a PAVM with an AVP there is persistent fl ow after 5 minutes Which option is CONTRAINDICATED to solve this problem?

    • Place a second plug

    • Place a coil

    • Wait 5 minutes

    • Embolize with particles

  15. All of the following are advantages of the AVP compared with a pushable coil, EXCEPT:

    • Can be retrieved

    • Less risk of migration

    • Less expensive

    • Can embolize larger vessel with one device

    Article 6 (370–373)

  16. Peripheral vascular disease aff ects what percent of the population over the age of 70?

    • 5%

    • 10%

    • 20%

    • 40%

  17. The Ocelot catheter uses what imaging guidance to ‘see’ inside the artery?

    • Fluoroscopy

    • Intravascular ultrasound

    • Optical coherence tomography

    • Rotational computed tomography

  18. CONNECT II was a prospective trial that studied treatment of chronic total occlusions involving what vessels?

    • Superficial femoral and popliteal arteries

    • Common femoral arteries

    • Common and external iliac arteries

    • Below the knee tibial arteries

  19. The success rate in crossing chronic total occlusions in the CONNECT II trial using the Ocelot catheter was what?

    • 43%

    • 59%

    • 84%

    • 97%

    Article 7 (374–378)

  20. Angiovac has been used successfully in all of the following clinical scenarios EXCEPT:

    • Atrial tumors/thrombosis

    • Catheter-related central venous thromosis

    • Ilio-caval thrombosis

    • Submassive and massive pulmonary embolism

    • Stroke

  21. Benefits of the Angiovac system include all of the following EXCEPT:

    • It aspirates blood

    • It fi lters the blood

    • The device is smaller in profile than the commercially available rheolytic devices

    • It delivers blood back to the circulation

    • There is minimal hemolysis

  22. Angiovac procedures:

    • Are usually be performed under moderate sedation

    • Requires one neck and one groin to be prepped

    • Require at least four physicians to perform

    • Require full anticoagulation (ACT >300 sec)

    • Access in the groins is via the iliac veins due to the size of the system

    Article 8 (379–383)

  23. According to the Instructions for Use (IFU), the Denali filter is recommended for caval diameters:

    • 33 mm or less

    • 28 mm or less

    • 26 mm or less

    • No recommendation

  24. From a technical standpoint, the most important step in successful retrieval of the fi lter is:

    • A digital subtraction cavagram prior to removal

    • CT imaging prior to consideration for retrieval

    • Engaging the apex of the filter

    • Establishing both jugular and femoral access during retrieval

  25. The DENALI Trial demonstrated:

    • Technical and clinical success of fi lter placement and retrieval

    • No instances of fi lter migration, fracture or filter tilt greater than 15 degrees

    • A retrieval success rate of greater than 97 percent

    • All of the above

    • None of the above

    Article 9 (384–387)

  26. Ultrasound facilitated delivery of thrombolytic therapy should be limited to patients with massive PE.

    • True

    • False

  27. The difference between the SEATTLE II and ULTIMA trials was:

    • The results demonstrated a benefit of ultrasound facilitated thrombolysis in SEATTLE II but not in ULTIMA

    • The results demonstrated a benefit of ultrasound facilitated thrombolysis in ULTIMA but not in SEATTLE II

    • Patient selection was more strict in ULTIMA than SEATTLE II

    • The delivery time of using the EKOS system was longer for SEATTLE II than ULTIMA the drug

    • None of the above

  28. Which of these is an available infusion length for the EKOS system catheter?

    • 5 cm

    • 10 cm

    • 15 cm

    • 20 cm

    • 30 cm

    Article 10 (388–397)

  29. In the mentioned comparative eff ectiveness trials, radioembolization outperforms TACE for treatment of HCC with regards to which of the following:

    • Time to progression

    • Downstaging UNOS T3 to T2 disease

    • Quality of life

    • All of the above

  30. Radiation lobectomy accomplishes all of the following except:

    • Ipsilateral tumor control and atrophy

    • Contralateral hypertrophy

    • Time dependent changes of the FLR in cirrhotic livers

    • Faster kinetics of future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy compared to portal vein embolization (PVE)

  31. All of the following are true EXCEPT:

    • Boosted radioembolization gives priority to tumor dosimetry rather than liver dosimetery

    • 90Y pair production allows for PET imaging of radioembolization microspheres

    • Single session radioembolization decreases the time between patient assessment and treatment

    • Radioembolization followed by sorafenib is considered unsafe.

    • Radiation segmentecomy treats lesions in high-risk locations for ablation without trans hepatic tumor puncture.

    Article 11 (398–415)

  32. Which of the following regarding HIFU is TRUE?

    • HIFU transducers deliver intensities in the range of 0.0001-0.1000 W/cm2

    • HIFU is currently performed under ultrasound guidance

    • The induced thermal lesions are well circumscribed with an intermediate zone, between the intact and destroyed cells, which is only several cell layers thick

    • Real-time thermometry during HIFU ablation has been investigated but is not yet available

  33. In terms of HIFUs oncologic applications, which of the following statements is FALSE?

    • HIFU has demonstrated some success in palliative pain management for patients with pancreatic cancer

    • It has been shown to be well tolerated in HCC patients with Child-Pugh A and B cirrhosis and in select Child-Pugh C cirrhotic patients

    • HIFU has as demonstrated safety and preliminary efficacy in the treatment of prostate cancer

    • It has proven to be more effective in the management of RCC in comparison to partial nephrectomy or radiofrequency ablation

  34. Which of the following statements regarding novel HIFU bioeffects is TRUE?

    • Acoustic cavitation results in the formation and the activity of a gas or vapor-fi lled cavity within biological tissue

    • Hyperthermia is only utilized for thermoablation

    • “Immune system modulation” refers to the ability to treat HIV/AIDS

    • HIFU plays no role in drug/gene delivery

    Article 12 (416–427)

  35. Which is a limitation of electromagnetic navigation for IR procedures?

    • Inherent target to registration error

    • Limited range of trackable needles

    • Inability to use in the MRI environment

    • All of the above

  36. Advantages of FDG-PET/CT imaging include all of the following EXCEPT:

    • Assessment of tumor metabolic activity

    • Lack of ionizing radiation dose compared to contrast enhanced CT.

    • Assessment of subtle foci of disease recurrence within pre-treated organs whose parenchyma may be distorted by prior surgery, ablation, embolization or radiotherapy

    • Delineating disease that might not otherwise be visualized on conventional anatomic imaging

  37. Recent published literature concerning the utility of CBCT image fusion with needle/catheter navigation include all of the following except:

    • CBCT with fl uoroscopy overlay and needle guidance software demonstrated superior accuracy in targeting small lesions with diffi cult (double angulated) needle paths compared to routine CT with no signifi cant diff erence in accuracy of “simpler” in-plane or single angulated trajectories.

    • CBCT showed faster RFA ablation times with lower recurrence rates compared to routine CT-guided RFA.

    • Use of fl at panel-CBCT-guidance demonstrated improved accuracy in bone biopsies compared to routine CT guidance with lower patient and operator radiation doses and no difference in puncture time or diagnostic yield.

    • CBCT allowed for safe and effective targeting of small renal masses in hard to reach locations with 95.1% accuracy and no major complications