Postoperative Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Rates with Subfascial Epidural Drain Placement after Intentional Durotomy in Spine Surgery
19 November 2015
25 February 2016
13 April 2016 (eFirst)
Study Design Retrospective chart review.
Objective Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a known complication of intraoperative durotomy. Intraoperative placement of subfascial epidural drains following primary dural repair has been proposed as a potential management strategy to prevent formation of CSF cutaneous fistula and symptomatic pseudomeningocele. Here we describe our experience with subfascial drain after intentional durotomy.
Methods Medical records of patients who underwent placement of subfascial epidural drains during spinal procedures with intentional intraoperative durotomies over a 4-year period at two institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Primary outcomes of interest were postoperative CSF cutaneous fistula or symptomatic pseudomeningocele formation.
Results Twenty-five patients were included. Mean length of follow-up was 9.5 months. Twelve patients (48%) underwent simultaneous arthrodesis. The average duration of the drain was 5.3 days with average daily output of 126.5 mL. Subgroup analyses revealed that average drain duration for the arthrodesis group was 6.33 days, which is significantly greater than that of the nonfused group, which was 3.7 days (p = 0.016). Similarly, the average daily drain output for the arthrodesis subgroup at 153.1 mL was significantly higher than that of the nonfused subgroup (86.8 mL, p = 0.04). No patient developed postoperative CSF cutaneous fistula or symptomatic pseudomeningocele or had negative sequelae associated with overdrainage of CSF. One patient had a delayed wound infection.
Conclusions The intraoperative placement of subfascial epidural drains was not associated with postoperative development of CSF cutaneous fistula, symptomatic pseudomeningocele, overdrainage, or subdural hematoma in the cases reviewed. Subfascial closed wound drain placement is a safe and efficacious management method after intentional spinal durotomies. It is particularly helpful in those who undergo simultaneous arthrodesis, as those patients have statistically higher daily drain output and longer drain durations.