Thorac cardiovasc Surg 2018; 66(01): 091-098
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1606318
Original Basic Science
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

A Newly Developed mm-Wave Sensor for Detecting Plaques of Arterial Vessels

Sebastian Vogt
Department of Heart Surgery, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
Biochemical Pharmacological Center, Cardiovascular Res Lab, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
,
Markus Detert
Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Insititut für Mikro- und Sensorsysteme, Magdeburg, Germany
,
David Wagner
Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Insititut für Mikro- und Sensorsysteme, Magdeburg, Germany
,
Jan Wessel
Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, IHP GmbH, Frankfurt (O), Germany
,
Rabia Ramzan
Department of Heart Surgery, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
,
Wilhelm Nimphius
Institut für Pathologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany
,
Anette Ramaswamy
Institut für Pathologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany
,
Subhajit Guha
Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, IHP GmbH, Frankfurt (O), Germany
,
Christian Wenger
Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, IHP GmbH, Frankfurt (O), Germany
,
Farabi Ibne Jamal
Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, IHP GmbH, Frankfurt (O), Germany
,
Mohammed Hussein Eissa
Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, IHP GmbH, Frankfurt (O), Germany
,
Ulrich Schumann
Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Insititut für Mikro- und Sensorsysteme, Magdeburg, Germany
,
Betram Schmidt
Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Insititut für Mikro- und Sensorsysteme, Magdeburg, Germany
,
Georg Rose
Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Insititut für Mikro- und Sensorsysteme, Magdeburg, Germany
,
Christoph Dahl
Institut für Hochfrequenzsysteme, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany
,
Ilona Rolfes
Institut für Hochfrequenzsysteme, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany
,
Gordon Notzon
Institut für Hochfrequenzsysteme, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany
,
Christoph Baer
Institut für Hochfrequenzsysteme, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany
,
Thomas Musch
Institut für Hochfrequenzsysteme, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

30 May 2017

27 July 2017

Publication Date:
18 September 2017 (eFirst)

Abstract

Background Microcalcifications within the fibrous cap of the arteriosclerotic plaques lead to the accrual of plaque-destabilizing mechanical stress. New techniques for plaque screening with small detectors and the ability to differentiate between the smooth and hard elements of plaque formation are necessary.

Method Vascular plaque formations are characterized as calcium phosphate containing structures organized as hydroxylapatite resembling the mineral whitlockite. In transmission and reflexion studies with a simple millimeter wave (mm-wave)–demonstrator, we found that there is a narrow window for plaque detection in arterial vessels because of the tissue water content, the differentiation to fatty tissue, and the dielectric property of air or water, respectively.

Result The new sensor is based on a sensing oscillator working around 27 GHz. The open-stub capacitance determines the operating frequency of the sensor oscillator. The capacitance depends on the dielectric properties of the surrounding material. The sensor components were completely built up in surface mount technique.

Conclusion Completed with a catheter, the sensor based on microwave technology appears as a robust tool ready for further clinical use.

Authors' Contributions

Sebastian Vogt, MD, JW, CW and RR wrote the manuscript. Sebastian Vogt, Wilhelm Nimphius, Anette Ramaswamy, and Rabia Ramzan performed the histological studies and clinical applications. Markus Detert, David Wagner, and Ulrich Schumann developed electronic hardware design. Jan Wessel, Christian Wenger, Subhajit Guha, Farabi Ibne Jamal, and Mohammed Hussein Eissa finalized sensor assembly and were involved in experimental procedures together with Sebastian Vogt, Jan Wessel, Christian Wenger, Rabia Ramzan, and Wilhelm Nimphius, Betram Schmidt, Georg Rose, Anette Ramaswamy, Gordon Notzon, Christoph Bear, Christoph Dahl, Ilona Rolfes, and Thomas Musch adapted catheter in different experimental settings.