Sternal Anomalies in Asymptomatic Patients after Median Sternotomy and Potential Influencing Factors
08 March 2017
29 August 2017
07 October 2017 (online)
Background We aimed to assess asymptomatic patients who had open-heart surgery with median sternotomy for potential sternal anomalies (SA), their related patient-specific risk factors, and treatment options for the prevention of SA.
Methods Multiplanar CT scans (CTs) from 131 asymptomatic consecutive patients were analyzed retrospectively. Of these, 83 underwent CABG (63.4%), and 48 had aortic valve (AV) procedures via median sternotomy. Sternal bone healing was analyzed for SA and their exact location.
Results In total, 49 SA were identified in 42 (32.1%) patients; 65% SA were found in the manubrium (n = 32). Five hundred thirty-two wires were implanted (4.2 ± 0.5 wires/patient), out of which 96.1% (n = 511) were figure 8 wires. There was no difference between normal and abnormal sterna with regard to the number of wires used for sternal closure (4.2 ± 0.5 vs. 4.3 ± 0.6, p = ns). The distance between wire placement to the proximal edge of the manubrium in normal and abnormal sterna was comparable (11.2 ± 4.2 vs. 10.9 ± 4.8 mm, p = ns). Patients who underwent CABG had a significantly higher risk for SA (OR = 2.4, p ≤ 0.05, 95% CI [1.2–4.9]). The use of BIMA (OR = 4.4, p ≤ 0.05, 95% CI [1.1–17.9]) and body mass index (BMI) > 31 kg/m2 (OR = 3.4, p ≤ 0.01, 95% CI [1.4–8.3]) significantly increased the risk of SA.
Conclusion At least 30% of patients were at an increased risk for SA after receiving a median sternotomy. CABG, use of BIMA, and a BMI > 30 kg/m2 were potential risk factors for the development of SA and warrant close clinical follow-up. Sternal plate fixation, particularly in the manubrium, could be beneficial in such patients.
This study was presented at the Oral Sessions of the Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Society of Cardiology, Swiss Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Vascular Surgery, and the Swiss Society of Pneumology, Lausanne, Switzerland from June 15 to 17, 2016.
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