Imaging Informatics: from Image Management to Image Navigation
07 March 2018 (online)
Objective To review the rapid evolution of imaging informatics dealing with issues of management and communication of digital images starting from the era of simple storage and transfer of images to today’s world of interactive navigation in large sets of multidimensional data.
Methods This paper will review the initial concepts of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) and the early developments and standardization efforts that lead to the deployment of large intra-institutional networks of image distribution allowing radiologists and physicians to access and review images digitally. With the deployment of PACS came along the need for advanced tools for image visualization and image analysis.
Results Review of the history of PACS and Imaging Informatics clearly shows that the early developments were focused on the radiologist’s requirements for diagnosis and image interpretation. These early developments lagged behind the rapid adoption of digital imaging in areas outside radiology. Only recently, imaging informatics shifted toward the development of new tools geared toward the needs of other users such as surgeons, referring physicians and care-providers, and even for the patients themselves. Also in the recent years, the development of multimedia and communication tools in the consumer market has influenced the design and strategic development of image management platforms inside and outside healthcare institutions.
Conclusions The focus of imaging informatics has clearly shifted in the last decade from basic infrastructure design to complete data and image navigation systems. While the challenge of storing and managing large volumes of imaging data have slowly vanished with the rapid development if information technology, the new challenge emerged from the new requirements of image manipulation and analysis in clinical practice.
- 1 Lemke HU, Stiehl HS, Scharnweber H, Jackel D. Applications of picture processing, image analysis and computer graphics techniques to cranial CT scans. In: Computer-aided analyses of radiological images. Newport Beach: IEEE; 1979
- 2 Duerinckx AE. First international conference and workshop on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) for medical application. NewPort Beach: SPIE; 1982
- 3 Duerinckx AJ. Introduction and the PACS ‘82 panel discussions: Panel 1—Equipment manufacturers’ view on PACS and Panel 2—The medical community’s view on PACS. 1982. J Digit Imaging 2003; 16 (01) 32-68. discussion 29-31.
- 4 Huang HK, Ratib O, Bakker AB, Witte G. Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) in Medicine. NATO ASI Series. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1991
- 5 Lemke HU. PACS developments in Europe. Comput Med Imaging Graph 2003; 27 (2-3): 111-20.
- 6 Osteaux M, Van den Broeck R, Verhelle F, de Mey J. Picture archiving and communication system (PACS): a progressive approach with small systems. Eur J Radiol 1996; 22 (03) 166-74.
- 7 Ratib O, Swiernik M, McCoy JM. From PACS to integrated EMR. Comput Med Imaging Graph 2003; 27 (2-3): 207-15.
- 8 Geissbuhler A, Lovis C, Spahni S, Appel RD, Ratib O, Boyer C. et al. A humanist’s legacy in medical informatics: visions and accomplishments of Professor Jean-Raoul Scherrer. Methods Inf Med 2002; 41 (03) 237-42.
- 9 Ratib O, Lemke H, Trayser G, Vurlod JF, Do H, Scherrer JR. Distributed Image Management and Hierarchical Storage in an Integrated RIS and PACS. In: MEDINFO’92. Geneva (Switzerland): North-Holland Ed. Amsterdam; 1992
- 10 Ligier Y, Ratib O, Funk M, Perrier R, Girard C, Logean M. Portable image-manipulation software: what is the extra development cost?. J Digit Imaging 1992; 05 (03) 176-84.
- 11 Ratib O, Ligier Y, Scherrer JR. Digital image management and communication in medicine. Comput Med Imaging Graph 1994; 18 (02) 73-84.
- 12 Bakker AR, Stut Jr WJ, De Valk JP, Reijns GR. PACS costs: modelling and simulation. Med Inform (Lond) 1988; 13 (04) 307-13.
- 13 Dicom Committee. DICOM strategic document, D.S.C.a.I.W. Groups, Editor. 2008
- 14 O’Donnell K. IHE Radiology User’s Handbook. 2005. ACC/HIMSS/RSNA.
- 15 Carey B, Seshadri SB, Arenson RL. PACS: “Back to the Future”. In: Jost RG. editor Medical Imaging V: PACS Design and Evaluation. Proc SPIE. 1991. 1446 414-9.
- 16 Inamura K, Kousaka S, Yamamoto Y, Sukenobu Y, Okura Y, Matsumura Y. et al. PACS development in Asia. Comput Med Imaging Graph 2003; 27 (2-3): 121-8.
- 17 Morgan MB, Branstetter BFT, Lionetti DM, Richardson JS, Chang PJ. The radiology digital dashboard: effects on report turnaround time. J Digit Imaging 2008; 21 (01) 50-8.
- 18 Morgan MB, Branstetter BFT, Mates J, Chang PJ. Flying blind: using a digital dashboard to navigate a complex PACS environment. J Digit Imaging 2006; 19 (01) 69-75.
- 19 Korb W, Bohn S, Burgert O, Dietz A, Jacobs S, Falk V. et al. Surgical PACS for the digital operating room. Systems engineering and specification of user requirements. Stud Health Technol Inform 2006; 119: 267-72.
- 20 Lemke HU, Osteaux M. PACS and digital imaging— new directions. Eur J Radiol 1993; 17 (01) 1-2.
- 21 Muller H, Michoux N, Bandon DA, Geissbuhler A. A review of content-based image retrieval systems in medical applications-clinical benefits and future directions. Int J Med Inform 2004; 73 (01) 1-23.
- 22 Muller H, Rosset A, Garcia A, Vallee JP, Geissbuhler A. Informatics in radiology (infoRAD): benefits of content-based visual data access in radiology. Radiographics 2005; 25 (03) 849-58.
- 23 Deserno TM, Antani S, Long R. Ontology of Gaps in Content-Based Image Retrieval. J Digit Imaging 2008; 22 (02) 202-15.
- 24 Kahn Jr CE, Channin DS, Rubin DL. An ontology for PACS integration. J Digit Imaging 2006; 19 (04) 316-27.
- 25 Bug WJ, Astahkov V, Boline J, Fennema-Notestine C, Grethe J, Gupta A. et al. Data Federation in the biomedical informatics research network: tools for semantic annotation and query of distributed multiscale brain data. AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2008; 1220.
- 26 Rosset A, Spadola L, Ratib O. OsiriX: an open-source software for navigating in multidimensional DICOM images. J Digit Imaging 2004; 17 (03) 205-16.
- 27 Rosset C, Rosset A, Ratib O. General consumer communication tools for improved image management and communication in medicine. J Digit Imaging 2005; 18 (04) 270-9.