Moderate Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest (≥ 28°C) with Selective Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion for Total Arch Replacement with Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique
13 September 2017
12 February 2018
01 April 2018 (online)
Objectives The optimal hypothermic level during circulatory arrest in aortic arch surgery remains controversial, particularly in frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedures. We describe herein our experience for total arch replacement with FET technique under moderate systemic hypothermic circulatory arrest (≥ 28°C) during selective antegrade cerebral perfusion.
Methods Between January 2009 and January 2016, 38 consecutive patients underwent elective total arch replacement for various aortic arch pathologies with FET technique using the E-vita Open hybrid prosthesis (Jotec GmbH, Hechingen, Germany). Selective unilateral or bilateral cerebral perfusion under moderate systemic hypothermic circulatory arrest (28.7°C ± 0.5°C) was used in all patients. Minimally invasive total arch replacement with FET via partial upper sternotomy was performed in 15 patients (39%) and in the remaining 23 patients (61%) via full sternotomy. Mean late follow-up was 3 ± 2 years and was 98% complete. Clinical data were prospectively entered into our institutional database.
Results Cardiopulmonary bypass time accounted for 198 ± 58 minutes and the myocardial ischemic time 109 ± 29 minutes. Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion time was 55 ± 6 minutes. Lower body circulatory arrest time was 39 ± 11 minutes. Unilateral cerebral perfusion was performed in 31 patients (82%), and bilateral in 7 patients (18%). Intensive care unit stay was 4 ± 3 days. Thirty-day mortality was 5% (n = 2). Late survival at 3 years was 87 ± 3%. Two patients (5%) required reexploration for bleeding. Patients were discharged after a hospital length of stay of 7 ± 2 days. Postoperative permanent neurologic complication occurred in two patients (5%). Three patients (8%) experienced a transient neurologic disorder. New transient renal replacement therapy was necessary in three patients (8%). No spinal cord injury was noted.
Conclusions Our data suggest that moderate systemic hypothermic circulatory arrest (≥ 28°C) in combination with antegrade cerebral perfusion can safely be applied for total aortic arch replacement with FET and offers sufficient neurologic and visceral organ protection.
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