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3D haptic training system for micorsurgery of the ear – BMBF-Haptivist
In the history of ENT, the instruments for performing a mastoidectomy have changed (including a drill instead of a chisel). However, even 145 years after the initial description (Schwarzte & Eysell), the surgical steps and the risk structures remain the same and allow the intervention to be implemented safely only through acquired expertise (on the human petrous bone preparation or patient).
The logistical problems of previous training methods (preparations and patients) represent a bottleneck, which in the present work is replaced by a three-dimensional, haptic training system based on patient data. In 9 different levels of difficulty (surgical/technical, with a help mode up to a realistic situs visualization) users learn the microsurgery of the ear. The graphic/haptic conversion was measured.
The evaluation with a commercial computer with i7 processor of the simulated interaction forces between drill and bone with the finger proxy algorithm from Chai3D, showed exact collision points with a graphical rendering (OpenGL) in real time.
For real-time capability of the system, a repetition rate of at least 15 Hz is required. The graphical rendering has a refresh rate of 100 – 500 Hz and is therefore real-time capable. Graphic and haptic rendering are therefore sufficiently performant. In order to make the training system even more realistic, further characteristics (eg formation of bone meal, contact with water, etc.) have to be simulated.
18 April 2018 (online)
© 2018. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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