Semin Thromb Hemost 2019; 45(01): 036-042
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1660481
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Evaluation of the Utility of von Willebrand Factor Propeptide in the Differential Diagnosis of von Willebrand Disease and Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome

Francesca Stufano
1  Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico and Luigi Villa Foundation, Milan, Italy
,
Marco Boscarino
1  Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico and Luigi Villa Foundation, Milan, Italy
,
Paolo Bucciarelli
1  Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico and Luigi Villa Foundation, Milan, Italy
,
Luciano Baronciani
1  Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico and Luigi Villa Foundation, Milan, Italy
,
Alberto Maino
1  Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico and Luigi Villa Foundation, Milan, Italy
2  Internal Medicine Unit, Azienda Provinciale per i Servizi Sanitari, Trento, Italy
,
Giovanna Cozzi
1  Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico and Luigi Villa Foundation, Milan, Italy
,
Flora Peyvandi
1  Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico and Luigi Villa Foundation, Milan, Italy
3  Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
18 June 2018 (eFirst)

Abstract

An increased von Willebrand factor propeptide (VWFpp) to VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) ratio (VWFpp/VWF:Ag) indicates an enhanced clearance of VWF. This finding has been described in von Willebrand disease (VWD) and in acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). A distinction between these two diseases, one congenital and the other acquired, is primarily based on family and personal history of bleeding. However, if this information is scanty, the diagnosis might be challenging due to the lack of an effective diagnostic biomarker. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the ability of VWFpp/VWF:Ag for the differential diagnosis between VWD and AVWS. VWFpp/VWF:Ag was measured in a group of 153 patients (125 with VWD and 28 with AVWS). Most patients with AVWS and VWD showed an increased VWFpp/VWF:Ag, although to variable degrees. A marked increase of VWFpp/VWF:Ag was mainly associated with the diagnosis of AVWS and VWD type 1 Vicenza. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to identify the optimal cutoff of VWFpp/VWF:Ag for discrimination of patients with a modestly increased (most VWD cases) versus those with a markedly increased clearance (AVWS and VWD type 1 Vicenza), and this cutoff was identified at the value of 3.9 (sensitivity: 0.70, specificity: 0.97). The ROC curve sorting from a logistic model containing VWFpp/VWF:Ag, age, and sex had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.80–0.95). A subsequent molecular evaluation discriminated VWD type 1 Vicenza from AVWS. In conclusion, VWFpp/VWF:Ag appears helpful to discriminate patients with a markedly increase VWF clearance (AVWS or VWD type 1 Vicenza) from those with a modestly increased clearance (most VWD patients).

Authors' Contributions

F.S., M.B., P.B., and L.B. wrote the article. A.M. critically revised the article. G.C. performed laboratory analysis. F.P. took part in the discussion and critically revised the article.