Burnout in Ophthalmology Residency: A National SurveyFunding This study was supported by an unrestricted departmental grant from Research to Prevent Blindness. The funding organization had no role in the design or conduct of this research.
04 April 2018
04 June 2018
19 July 2018 (online)
Purpose To determine prevalence of burnout in ophthalmology residents in the United States using the Maslach Burnout Inventory—Human Services Survey and to identify factors associated with burnout and wellness.
Methods Anonymous survey distributed to residents via residency program directors.
Results Ninety-one programs out of 113 (80.5%) confirmed survey distribution. Of 267 included respondents, 23 (8.6%) met criteria for high burnout, and 169 (63.3%) met criteria for at least one aspect of burnout. Longer work hours, longer hours spent on call, higher number of consults seen on call, fewer hours of sleep on call, and not meeting recommended physical activity minimums were associated with higher emotional exhaustion. Most common factors cited to improve wellness included physical activity, nurturing relationships, and co-resident support, whereas most commonly cited factors that contributed to burnout included sleep deprivation, call, and workload.
Conclusion Burnout in ophthalmology residents is common, occurring at similar rates as reported in residencies of other specialties.
- 1 Maslach C, Jackson SE, Leiter PM, Schaufeli WB. Maslach Burnout Inventory. 3rd ed. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1996
- 2 Lebensohn P, Dodds S, Benn R. , et al. Resident wellness behaviors: relationship to stress, depression, and burnout. Fam Med 2013; 45 (08) 541-549
- 3 Bianchi R, Schonfeld IS, Laurent E. Burnout-depression overlap: a review. Clin Psychol Rev 2015; 36: 28-41
- 4 Schonfeld IS, Bianchi R. Burnout and depression: two entities or one?. J Clin Psychol 2016; 72 (01) 22-37
- 5 Wurm W, Vogel K, Holl A. , et al. Depression-burnout overlap in physicians. PLoS One 2016; 11 (03) e0149913
- 6 de Oliveira Jr GS, Chang R, Fitzgerald PC. , et al. The prevalence of burnout and depression and their association with adherence to safety and practice standards: a survey of United States anesthesiology trainees. Anesth Analg 2013; 117 (01) 182-193
- 7 Shanafelt TD, Balch CM, Bechamps G. , et al. Burnout and medical errors among American surgeons. Ann Surg 2010; 251 (06) 995-1000
- 8 Shanafelt TD, Bradley KA, Wipf JE, Back AL. Burnout and self-reported patient care in an internal medicine residency program. Ann Intern Med 2002; 136 (05) 358-367
- 9 Block L, Wu AW, Feldman L, Yeh HC, Desai SV. Residency schedule, burnout and patient care among first-year residents. Postgrad Med J 2013; 89 (1055): 495-500
- 10 West CP, Huschka MM, Novotny PJ. , et al. Association of perceived medical errors with resident distress and empathy: a prospective longitudinal study. JAMA 2006; 296 (09) 1071-1078
- 11 Elmore LC, Jeffe DB, Jin L, Awad MM, Turnbull IR. National survey of burnout among US general surgery residents. J Am Coll Surg 2016; 223 (03) 440-451
- 12 Doan-Wiggins L, Zun L, Cooper MA, Meyers DL, Chen EH. Practice satisfaction, occupational stress, and attrition of emergency physicians. Wellness Task Force, Illinois College of Emergency Physicians. Acad Emerg Med 1995; 2 (06) 556-563
- 13 Tran EM, Scott IU, Clark MA, Greenberg PB. Assessing and promoting the wellness of united states ophthalmology residents: a survey of program directors. J Surg Educ 2018; 75 (01) 95-103
- 14 Shanafelt TD, Hasan O, Dyrbye LN. , et al. Changes in burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance in physicians and the general US working population between 2011 and 2014. Mayo Clin Proc 2015; 90 (12) 1600-1613
- 15 Dyrbye LN, West CP, Satele D. , et al. Burnout among U.S. medical students, residents, and early career physicians relative to the general U.S. population. Acad Med 2014; 89 (03) 443-451
- 16 Kimo Takayesu J, Ramoska EA, Clark TR. , et al. Factors associated with burnout during emergency medicine residency. Acad Emerg Med 2014; 21 (09) 1031-1035
- 17 Becker JL, Milad MP, Klock SC. Burnout, depression, and career satisfaction: cross-sectional study of obstetrics and gynecology residents. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 195 (05) 1444-1449
- 18 McNeeley MF, Perez FA, Chew FS. The emotional wellness of radiology trainees: prevalence and predictors of burnout. Acad Radiol 2013; 20 (05) 647-655
- 19 Guenette JP, Smith SE. Burnout: prevalence and associated factors among radiology residents in New England with comparison against United States resident physicians in other specialties. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017; 209 (01) 136-141
- 20 Golub JS, Weiss PS, Ramesh AK, Ossoff RH, Johns III MM. Burnout in residents of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery: a national inquiry into the health of residency training. Acad Med 2007; 82 (06) 596-601
- 21 Attenello FJ, Buchanan IA, Wen T. , et al. Factors associated with burnout among US neurosurgery residents: a nationwide survey. J Neurosurg 2018; ; February 9 (online ahead of print); DOI: 10.3171/2017.9.JNS17996.
- 22 Ramey SJ, Ahmed AA, Takita C, Wilson LD, Thomas Jr CR, Yechieli R. Burnout evaluation of radiation residents nationwide: results of a survey of united states residents. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017; 99 (03) 530-538
- 23 Baer TE, Feraco AM, Tuysuzoglu Sagalowsky S, Williams D, Litman HJ, Vinci RJ. Pediatric resident burnout and attitudes toward patients. Pediatrics 2017; 139 (03) 2163
- 24 Olson SM, Odo NU, Duran AM, Pereira AG, Mandel JH. Burnout and physical activity in Minnesota Internal Medicine resident physicians. J Grad Med Educ 2014; 6 (04) 669-674
- 25 Pulcrano M, Evans SR, Sosin M. Quality of life and burnout rates across surgical specialties: a systematic review. JAMA Surg 2016; 151 (10) 970-978
- 26 Fletcher KE, Reed DA, Arora VM. Patient safety, resident education and resident well-being following implementation of the 2003 ACGME duty hour rules. J Gen Intern Med 2011; 26 (08) 907-919
- 27 Visser PS, Krosnick JA, Marquette J, Curtin M. Mail surveys for election forecasting? An evaluation of the Colombia Dispatch Poll. Public Opin Q 1996; 60 (02) 181-227
- 28 Holbrook A, Krosnick J, Pfent A. The causes and consequences of response rates in surveys by the news media and government contractor survey research firms. In: Lepkowski JM, Tucker NC, Brick JM. , et al, eds. Advances in Telephone Survey Methodology. New York, NY: Wiley; 2007
- 29 Mealing NM, Banks E, Jorm LR, Steel DG, Clements MS, Rogers KD. Investigation of relative risk estimates from studies of the same population with contrasting response rates and designs. BMC Med Res Methodol 2010; 10: 26
- 30 Ishak WW, Lederer S, Mandili C. , et al. Burnout during residency training: a literature review. J Grad Med Educ 2009; 1 (02) 236-242
- 31 Salles A, Cohen GL, Mueller CM. The relationship between grit and resident well-being. Am J Surg 2014; 207 (02) 251-254
- 32 Chaukos D, Chad-Friedman E, Mehta DH. , et al. Risk and resilience factors associated with resident burnout. Acad Psychiatry 2017; 41 (02) 189-194
- 33 Kassam A, Horton J, Shoimer I, Patten S. Predictors of well-being in resident physicians: a descriptive and psychometric study. J Grad Med Educ 2015; 7 (01) 70-74
- 34 West CP, Dyrbye LN, Rabatin JT. , et al. Intervention to promote physician well-being, job satisfaction, and professionalism: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med 2014; 174 (04) 527-533