CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Semin Thromb Hemost
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1668098
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Detecting Anti-IIa and Anti-Xa Direct Oral Anticoagulant (DOAC) Agents in Urine using a DOAC Dipstick

Job Harenberg
1  DOASENSE GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany
2  Medical Faculty Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
,
Rupert Schreiner
3  Medical Care Center Dr. Limbach and Colleagues, Heidelberg, Germany
,
Svetlana Hetjens
4  Division of Biometry and Statistics, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
,
Christel Weiss
4  Division of Biometry and Statistics, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karls University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
22 August 2018 (eFirst)

Abstract

The assessment of the anticoagulant effect of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) can be important for rapid medical decision-making, especially in patients needing immediate management. An assay that screens for the absence or presence of a DOAC would help accelerate treatment in these situations. Chromogenic and coagulation methods have several limitations, including limited accuracy, long turnaround time, and their need of specialized laboratories. Oral factor Xa and thrombin inhibitors are also eliminated by the kidneys and can be detected in patient urine samples using a single, rapid, sensitive, and patient-specific qualitative assay. In these tests, the presence or absence of a DOAC in urine can be identified by visually observing specific colors after a few minutes. Several studies have demonstrated the robustness and repeatability of these assays. The specific colors of the test strip also detect creatinine in the urine, which shows whether DOAC excretion is reduced, thus suggesting renal impairment. Persons with amblyopia may use a specific reader. Current indications for using the DOAC Dipstick test include emergency medical situations with severe bleeding and thrombotic events or before urgent major surgical interventions to accelerate medical decision-making.