A Prospective Analysis of Derangement of Coagulation Profile in Adult and Pediatric Age Group in Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
25 July 2019 (online)
Background and Aim of Study Coagulopathy is a common occurrence following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Various studies have reported the incidence and risk factors of coagulopathy and their correlation with poor outcome in adult as well as pediatric age group. In our study, we aim to analyze trauma-induced coagulopathy in adult and pediatric patients.
Methods Adult (> 18 years) and pediatric (< 18 years) patients of TBI admitted in the intensive care unit of a trauma center of a tertiary care center had been studied from August 2015 to March 2018. Patients were further subdivided into moderate and severe TBI based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 9 to 12 and < 9, respectively. Coagulation profile (prothrombin time [PT], activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT], thrombin time, fibrinogen, and D-dimer) and arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis were done on day of admission and on days 3 and 7. Coagulation profiles were analyzed in both the age groups, and risk factors were studied and correlated with the mortality and morbidity based on the Glasgow outcome score.
Results Two hundred patients including 143 adults and 57 pediatric patients were included. Mean age among the adult and pediatric population was 31.51 ± 16.83 and 11.5 ± 5.90 years, respectively. In adults, 96 (83.62%) out of 116 in severe TBI group and 20 (74.07%) out of 27 in moderate TBI group developed coagulopathy, and in pediatric age group, 14 (70%) out of 20 in moderate TBI and 30 (81.08%) out of 37 in severe TBI developed coagulopathy. Midline shift was significantly associated with coagulopathy in both the age groups (p value < 0.039). Mortality was not significantly different in patients with coagulopathy between the age groups, but improved status as per the Glasgow outcome score was more in pediatric age group.
Conclusion The development of coagulopathy is a frequent complication in patients with moderate to severe TBI in both age groups. Even though it is not closely associated with death in this study, it may be regarded as a marker of injury severity.
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