Homeopathy 2019; 108(03): 201-213
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1681062
Original Research Article
The Faculty of Homeopathy

Effect of Homeopathic Medicines on Intestinal Coccidia and Immune Response Cells in Spotted Rose Snapper (Lutjanus guttatus)

Antonia del Pilar Rosero-García
1   Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas (CICIMAR-IPN), La Paz, México
2   Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste S. C. (CIBNOR), La Paz, México
Silvie Dumas
1   Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas (CICIMAR-IPN), La Paz, México
María Cristina Chávez-Sánchez
3   Centro de Investigación en Alimentación Desarrollo A. C. Unidad Mazatlán (CIAD), Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México
Araceli Avilés-Quevedo
4   Centro Regional de Investigación Acuícola y Pesquera (CRIAP-INAPESCA), La Paz, México
Carmen Rodríguez-Jaramillo
2   Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste S. C. (CIBNOR), La Paz, México
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

22 October 2018

24 January 2019

Publication Date:
18 April 2019 (online)


Background Homeopathy has been widely applied in freshwater species but rarely in marine fish. Farm stress destabilises host–pathogen equilibrium, favouring parasites and disease. Coccidian endoparasites cause intestinal infections and cell degeneration.

Materials and Methods Naturally parasite-infested juvenile snapper Lutjanus guttatus (n = 430; weight 1.9 ± 0.01 g; length 4.9 ± 0.03 cm) specimens were distributed in group sizes of 43, in 10 fiberglass tanks (100 L) with aeration and continuous water change. Five groups in duplicate were assessed: Passival (PaV); Passival and Phosphoricum acid Similia (PaV–PhA); Passival and Silicea terra Similia (PaV–SiT); Endecto and Infecçoes (End–Inf) and a control (Ethanol) for 45 days. Feed was sprinkled with treatment (5% v/w) and dried to avoid ethanol side-effects. Statistical results were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean.

Results Intestinal coccidia were recorded histopathologically, with the least incidence attained at T45 with End–Inf treatment (p < 0.001), coinciding with the highest lymphocyte (p = 0.015) count. Fish treated with PaV–PhA recorded a higher percentage of neutrophils (p = 0.015), and those treated with PaV–PhA, PaV–SiT and End–Inf revealed a decrease in lesions, degree of alteration and change in intestine and stomach tissues (p < 0.05). The number of mucous cells in gills was greater (p < 0.001) for End–Inf (43 ± 0.58), PaV–SiT (40 ± 2.89) and PaV–PhA (39 ± 3.46) as compared respectively with T0 and control (19 ± 0.58 and 28 ± 2.31). PaV and PaV–SiT increased carbohydrate reserves in liver (28.4 ± 1.39% and 22.4 ± 0.12%, respectively) compared with T0 and control (3.4 ± 0.32 and 5.6 ± 0.66%). The highest survival rate was 97.7 ± 0.16% in fish treated with PaV and End–Inf.

Conclusion Homeopathic treatments had a positive effect on fish health. Besides the accumulation of metabolic reserves in the liver, homeopathic treatment was associated with mucin increase in gills as well as raised production of lymphocytes and neutrophils in blood, which could act as macrophages against intestinal coccidia.


• Homeopathy improves overall health status in juvenile marine fish L. guttatus.

• Human homeopathic medicines increase carbohydrate reserves in liver of this marine fish.

• Veterinary homeopathic medicines reduce intestinal coccidian parasites in this fish species.

• Both medicines increase mucin in gills and increase lymphocytes and neutrophils in fish blood.