CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Morphological Sciences 2019; 36(02): 067-071
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1685223
Original Article
Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Estimation of the Humerus Length by its Proximal Segments: A South Indian Anatomical Study

Kasargod Umesh Prashanth
1   Department of Anatomy, A.J. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Kuntikana, Mangalore, India
Mangala Manohar Pai
2   Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Karnataka, India
Bukkambudhi Virupakshamurthy Murlimanju
2   Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Karnataka, India
Latha Venkatraya Prabhu
2   Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Karnataka, India
Manoor Dass Prameela
2   Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Karnataka, India
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

02 August 2018

15 February 2019

Publication Date:
17 April 2019 (online)


Introduction To determine the morphometric data of the proximal segments of the humerus in the South Indian population, and to obtain the regression equations that will enable us to predict the whole length of humerus.

Materials and Methods The present study included 166 dried adult human humeri. Their lengths were measured by using the osteometric board. The seven proximal segment lengths of the humeri were assessed by using a digital Vernier caliper (Mitutoyo Corporation 150 mm/6 inch, model number 500-196-20, Kawasaki, Japan).

Results The mean humerus length in the present study was 30.75 ± 2.03 cm on the right side and 30.27 ± 2.28 cm on the left side. The comparison between the right and left sides of the proximal segments of the humerus did not yield statistically significant results (p > 0.05). The present study observed that the relationship between the dimensions of the proximal segments of the humerus and the length of humerus were strong (p = 0.00). The oblique length between the most proximal and distal points over the anatomical neck was the best parameter to predict the length of humerus (the Pearson coefficient was 0.78 for the right side and 0.77 for the left side).

Conclusion The simple regression formulae, which were derived in this study, are helpful in the estimation of the length of the humerus. The formulae can be used in forensic investigations, in which the stature of a person has to be determined and only bone fragments are available. The morphometric data of the present study have implications in archaeological and anthropological studies. The data are enlightening to orthopedicians, when planning reconstructive surgeries of the proximal end of the humerus in the South Indian population.


Mangala M. Pai is presently working as Professor and Head of the Anatomy Department and is interested in the field of human morphology. She has more than 50 research articles published on human morphology and anthropology.

Sources of Support


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